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Chapter 25

STUDY
PLAY
The pathway of bile from the bile canaliculus to the gallbladder is
-bile ductile > hepatic duct > common hepatic duct > cystic duct
-bile ductile > hepatic duct > cystic duct > bile duct
bile ductile > hepatic duct > common hepatic duct > cystic duct

Billy hates combing ducks.
The gastroileal reflex relaxes the ileocecal valve when the stomach
is full of food.
true
The external anal sphincter allows for voluntary control over the time
of defecation.
true
Digestive enzymes digest each other, allowing the amino acids to be
absorbed and reused.
true
There are normally 32 teeth in the maxilla and 32 in the mandible.
false
A high-fat meal remains in the stomach longer than a high carbohydrate
meal.
true
The intestinal crypts contain chief cells, parietal cells, and G cells.
false
Positive feedback is important in the production of pepsin in the stomach
true
Due to postmortem shrinkage, the small intestine is shorter in a cadaver
than it is in a living person.
false
There are no gastric glands in the fundic stomach.
false
The pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon into the duodenum.
false
The stomach lining is so well produced by mucus and tight junctions
that its epithelial cells die at a very slow rate.
false
Ingested food raises the pH of the stomach contents.
true
The stomach secretes gastrin when its internal pH rises.
true
The hormone secretin stimulates the stomach to secrete acid and enzymes
false
Chylomicrons are produced by the epithelial cells of the small intestine.
true
All of the following except ____ contribute to the large surface area
available for nutrient absorption in the small intestine.
-villi
-rugae
rugae
Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract.
Which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface?
(lamp, mm's, sub, me, ser)
lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
Which of the following cells are not found in the gastric glands?
chief cells
goblet cells
parietal cells
goblet cells
The swallowing center is located in
the brainstem
the enteric nervous system
the brainstem
All of the following glands secrete only mucus, except the
-pyloric glands
-duodenal glands
-cardiac glands
-gastric glands
gastric glands
An active transport pump called H+-K ATPase is essential for
-neutralizing stomach acid as it enters the duodenum
-the secretion of stomach acid
the secretion of stomach acid
Bacteria, destroying macrophages are found in sinusoids of the
-liver
-pancreas
-appendix
liver
Vitamin B12, which is needed for red blood cell production, requires
____ for its absorption.
intrinsic factor
hydrochloric acid
intrinsic factor
Chylomicrons are produced in
-the epithelial cells of the small intestine, as lipids are absorbed
-the lymph, as fats are absorbed
the epithelial cells of the small intestine, as lipids are absorbed
The enterogastric reflex serves to
-stimulate intestinal motility when there is food in the stomach
-inhibit gastric motility when there is chime in the small intestine
-relax the ileocecal valve when chime is on its way to the colon
inhibit gastric motility when there is chime in the small intestine
The release of bile into the duodenum is controlled by the
-hepatopancreatic sphincter
-gastroesophageal sphincter
hepatopancreatic sphincter
The falciform ligament
-attaches the liver to the diaphragm
-attaches the liver to the abdominal wall
attaches the liver to the abdominal wall
A hepatic triad consists of
-the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct
-a bile ductile and branches of the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein
a bile ductile and branches of the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein
Bile gets its yellow, green color mainly from
cholesterol
bile salts
phopholipids
bilirubin
urobilinogen
bilirubin
Which of these is not a component of the pancreatic juice?
deoxyribonuclease
enterokinase
enterokinase
Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?
triglycerides
glucose
minerals
triglycerides
Which of these is the site of contact digestion?
the brush border of the small intestine
the cytoplasm of the small intestinal cells
the brush border of the small intestine
What are Peyer's patches, and where are they located?
lymphatic follicles of the ileum
lymphatic tissues of the oropharynx
lymphatic follicles of the ileum
Of the following components of bile, only ____ has/have a
digestive function.
bile salts
bilirubin
cholesterol
bile salts
All of the following enzymes digest proteins except
chymotrypsin
carboxypeptidase
ribonuclease
ribonuclease
Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone
-insulin
-cholecystokinin
-secretin
cholecystokinin
The function of enterokinase is to
convert pepsinogen to pepsin
convert trypsinogen to trypsin
convert trypsinogen to trypsin
Unlike the small intestine, the large intestine shows pouches called
____ along its length.
haustra
ceca
haustra
Bacteria constitute about ____ of the dry weight of the feces.
14%
30%
55%
30%
The gastrocolic reflex triggers ___ in response to filling of the stomach.
-segmentation contractions
-haustral contractions
-mass movements
mass movements
Dextrinase carries out the final stages in the digestion of
-triglycerides
-polysaccharides
polysaccharides
Cane sugar is digested by
sucrase
sucrose
sucrase
SGLT, an active transport pump of the small intestine, can only
absorb glucose by simultaneously transporting-
-water
-sodium
-potassium
sodium
In addition to active transport, glucose can be absorbed from the
chime by means of-
-facilitated diffusion
-solvent drag
solvent drag
Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?
pepsin
trypsin
pepsin
Lecithin, a phospholipid, prepares fat for enzymatic digestion by breaking
it up into
-fatty acids and glycerol
-high density lipoproteins
-emulsification droplets
emulsification droplets
All of the following nutrients are absorbed by blood capillaries of the
villus except-
-glucose
-cholesterol
-phosphate
cholesterol
The absorption of ___ depends on the presence of vitamin D.
cholesterol
glucose
calcium
calcium
Most of the water entering the digestive tract each day comes from
-gastrointestinal secretions
-metabolic water
gastrointestinal secretions
Which of the following enzymes does not digest any nutrients?
carboxypeptidase
enterokinase
sucrase
enterokinase
All of the following are enzymes except
secretin
trypsin
pepsin
secretin
The enterogastric reflex regulates the ____ phase of gastric activity.
cephalic
colonic
intestinal
intestinal
The small intestine is suspended from the dorsal body wall by
the mesentery
the greater omentum
the lesser omentum
the mesentery
Which one of the following is absorbed without being digested?
cholesterol
sucrose
peptides
cholesterol
Most of the GI tract is composed of a ____ epithelium, while the
oral cavity through the esophagus and lower anal canal are composed
of a ____ epithelium.
-simple columnar; nonkeratinized stratified squamos
-simple columnar; simple squamos
simple columnar; nonkeratinized stratified squamos
This tissue layer consists of a thick layer of loose connective tissue
containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, a nerve plexus, and
in some places, glands that secrete lubricating mucus into the lumen.
-tunica mucosa
-tunica submucosa
tunica submucosa
This is the outer tunic in the oral cavity, pharynx, most of the esophagus,
and the rectum. It is comprised of a fibrous connective tissue layer called the
adventitia
granulose
adventitia
The tunica mucosa contains smooth muscle called the ____, which is
stimulated by the ____ plexus.
muscularis mucosae; submucosal
muscularis mucosae; myenteric
muscularis mucosae; submucosal
The extension of the peritoneum that loosely covers the small intestine
like an apron is the ____, while the extension of the peritoneum that
anchors much of the large intestine is the _____.
lesser omentum; mesentery
greater omentum; mesocolon
greater omentum; mesocolon
Inflammation of the greater or lesser omentum, mesentery, or
mesocolon is called
appendicitis
peritonitis
gastritis
peritonitis
This structure closes off the nasopharynx when you swallow.
vestibule
uvula
frenulum
uvula
The tongue has a ____ epithelium and the site of the taste buds
called ____.
-nonkeratinized stratified squamos; papillae
-nonkerantized stratified squamos; lingual glands
nonkeratinized stratified squamos; papillae
Infants have ___ deciduous teeth, while adults have ___ permanent
teeth.
20; 32
10; 32
20; 32
An individual has an impacted tooth. This tooth is most likely the
first molar
third molar
third molar
The tooth is anchored to alveolar bone by the
periodontal ligament
gingival sulcus
periodontal ligament
Gingivitis is a(n) ___ and is the leading cause of ___ in adults.
tooth decay; tooth aches
gum inflammation; tooth loss
gum inflammation; tooth loss
Most of a tooth consists of a hard, yellowish tissue called ____,
which is covered by a hard layer of calcium phosphate crystals
called _____.
dentin; enamel
cementum; enamel
dentin; enamel
The two living parts of a tooth are the
dentin and enamel
dentin and cementum
dentin and cementum
You were following a molecule of glucose from the artery outside
the tooth to an odontoblast in the dentin. The pathway glucose would
take is
apical foramen > root canal > pulp cavity
apical foramen > pulp cavity > root canal
apical foramen > root canal > pulp cavity
Salivary glands produce ___, which inhibits bacterial growth.
IgF
IgA
IgG
IgA
Lingual lipase and lysozymes are produced by ___ salivary glands.
intrinsic
extrinsic
intrinsic
Mumps are most often caused by a viral infection of the _____
salivary glands.
parotid
intrinsic
extrinsic
parotid
The esophagus pierces through the diaphragm at the _____, and its
submucosa contains ___ glands that secrete mucus.
hiatus; Brunner
hiatus; esophageal
hiatus; goblet
hiatus; esophageal
The tunica muscularis externa of the stomach contains
two layers of smooth muscle
three layers of smooth muscle
three layers of smooth muscle
In the gastric pits, ____ cells secrete HCI and intrinsic factor and _____
cells secrete pepsinogen.
parietal; chief
parietal; enteroendocrine
parietal; chief
Pepsinogen is produced by ___ cells and is activatedy by ___.
-chief; HCI secreted by parietal cells
-chief; carbonic anhydrase secreted by parietal cells
chief; HCI secreted by parietal cells
Pepsin digests ___ to ____.
proteins; peptides
proteins; amino acids
proteins; peptides
The ileocecal valves open in response to
food in the ileum
food in the stomach
food in the large intestine
food in the stomach