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22 terms

Biology ch 13-1: Genetic Engineering

prentice hall biology chapter 13-1
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selective breeding
method of breeding that allows only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation
Luther Burbank
American botanist, and greatest selective plant breeder of all time who developed the disease resistant burbank potato which was used to help fight potato blight and other diseases
hybridization
crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms
hybrids
individuals produced by hybridization which are often hardier than either of the parents
inbreeding
the continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
problems with inbreeding
increased susceptibility to disease and deformities which can happen if the cross brings together 2 recessive alleles for a genetic disorder
the ultimate source of genetic variation
mutation induction
mutation
inheritable changes in DNA
what increase the chance of mutations
chemicals and radiation
what plant traits did Luther Burbank combine in his crosses?
disease resistant and food producing
what technique do scientists used to produce mutant plants?
drugs that prevent chromosomal seperation during meiosis.
polyploids
plants that have many sets of chromosomes
examples of polyploids
bananas, citrus fruit, day lilies
example of inbreeding
golden retievers (pedigree dogs)
example of hybridization
poodles and beagles
what is produced using selective breeding?
nearly all animals and most crop plants have been produced by selective breeding.
what does inbreeding ensure?
inbreeding ensures that the characteristics that make each breed unique will be preserved.
can mutations occur spontaneously?
mutations occur spontaneously but breeders can increase the mutation rate by using radiation and chemicals.
how can mutations be useful?
introducing mutations has allowed scientists to develop hundreds of useful bacterial strains, including bacteria that can clean up oil spells.
what does mutation in some plant cells cause?
mutations in some plant cells produce cells that have double or triple the normal number of chromosomes.
what is the benefit of creating plant cells with double or triple the normal number of chromosomes?
polyploidy, produces plant species that are often larger and stronger than their diploid relatives.
is polyploidy useful in animals?
polyploidy in animals is usually fatal.