MILADY Chapter 6 Review

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List the reasons a cosmetologist studies anatomy and physiology.
1. Understanding the body will help you understand hiwbthe body will react to certain treatments.
2. You need to know what is abnormal.
3. Understanding bone and muscle structure of the human body will help you with scam manipulations and facials.
As a cosmetologist, understanding the concept of human anatomy is primarily restricted to:
Skin, muscles,nerves, circulatory system, and bones of head and face ; neck, shoulders, arms, hands, lower, legs and feet.
The study of human body structures you can see with the naked eye and how they are organized is called ______
Anatomy
The study structures that require a microscope to see is called ____ also known as microscopic anatomy.
Histology
_____ is the study of functions and activities performed by the body's structures.
Physiology
The basic unit of all living things, from bacteria to plants and animals, including human beings in the ____
Cells
The cells of all living things are composed of a substance called ____ . A colorless, jelly-like substance.
Protoplasm
A)Metabolism
B) Histology
C) Nucleus
D) Cytoplasm
E) Cell membrane
A) chemical process through which cells are nourished and carry out their activities.

B) Study of the many tiny structures found in the living tissue; microscopic anatomy.

C) Dense active protoplasm, found at the centre of the cell

D) Protoplasm of the cell that surrounds the nucleus.

E) Balloon that contains the protoplasm, allowing certain substances to pass through.
Cells have the ability to reproduce, providing new cells for the growth and replacement of worn injured ones.
True
Most cells reproduce by dividing into two identical cells called ___. This process if cekk reproduction us known as ____.
Daughter / Mtosis
For cells to reproduce, conditions must be favorable which includes:
A) food, oxygen , water
B) suitabke temperature
C) the ability to get rid of waste
What occurs if conditions are unfavorable for cell growth and reproduction.?
They become impaired and die.
What conditions are considered unfavorable for cell growth and reproduction?
Toxins and disease/injury.
____ is a chemical process that takes place in living organisms, whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities.
Metabolism.
List and define the two stages of metabolism:
1) anabolism- the process of busing larger organisms from smaller ones. The body stores water, food and oxygen for they need it for reproduction, growth or repair.

2) catabolism- breaking down complex compounds and releasing stored energy.
Anabolism and catabolism are not carried out simultaneously.
False
A collection of similar cells that perform a particular function are ___ . Each collection has a specific function and can be recognized by its ____ appearance.
1) tissue

2) characteristic
How many types of tissue are there in the body?
Four
____ tissue is a protective covering on body surfaces
Epithelial
____ tissue contracts and moves various parts of the body.
Muscular
_____ tissue carry messages to and from the brain and control and coordinate all bodily functions.
Nerve.
List of examples of connective tissue:
Bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, blood, lymph and fat
____ is the study of anatomy, structure, and functions of the bones. What prefix is uses in medical terms that means bone?
Osteology

Os
The skeletal system is made of ____ bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by movable as immovable joints.
206
The cranium is made up of:
8 bones
1. Parietial
2. Occipital
3. Frontal
4. Temporal
5. Sphenoid
1. For the sides and crown of cranium.
2. Hindmost bone of skull
3. Forms the forehead
4. Form the sides of the head in the ear region
5. Joins all the bones of the cranium together.
What is thorax?
Chest/ pulmonary trunk. Consists of sternum, ribs, thoratic vertabrae. Cage for heart / lungs.
Define the muscular system:
Is the system that covers, shapes and holds the skeletal system in place. Contracts and moves various parts of the body.
Name 3 parts of the muscle and define each part:
Belly- middle part of the muscle

Insertion - part of the muscle moves and is farthest from skeleton

Origin- the part of the muscles that does not move and is closest to skeleton
Which direction is pressure applied in the muscle during massage?
From insertion to origin
The muscle that draws the scalp backward is the _____
Occipitals
The _____ muscle of the scalp raises the eyebrows , draws the scalp forward, and causes wrinkles across forehead.
Frontalis
The muscle that forms the ring or the eye socket, closing the eye is the:
Orbicularis oculi
Pronators
Muscles that turn the hand inward so the palm faces downward
1. Nasal
2. Lacrimal
3. Zygomatic
4. Maxilae
5. Mandible
1. Form the bridge of the nose
2. Small, thin bones located at the front inner wall
3. From the prominence of the cheeks
4. Bones of the upper jaw
5. Lower jawbone, largest and strongest of the face.
The skull is divided into two parts _____ and ____ , which is made up of ___ bones.
Cranium, facial skeleton, 14
The smaller bone in the forearm in the same side sd the thumb
Radius
The upper most and largest bone in the arm is the
Humerus
Another name for the wrist, a flexible joint composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones, is the ___
Carpus
The inner, large bone of the forearm, which is attached to thw wrist abd located on the side of the smaller finger is the ____
Ulna
The _____ are bones of the palm of the hand and the phalanges are the bones in the fingers also called _____...
Metacarpus

Digits
Femur
Heavy, long bone; forms the leg below the knee
The foot is made up of ___ bones, subdivided into three categories:
26

1. Tarsal
2. Metatarsal
3. Phalanges
The system that is exceptionally well organized and responsible for coordinating all of the many activities that are performed inside and outside of the body is the ____
Nervous system
_____ is the scientific study of the structure function and pathology of the nervous system
Neurology
Every square inch of human body is supplied with fine fibers known as ______
Nerves
The _____ is the largest and most complex nerve tissue in the body, is contained in the ___ and weighs a little less than ___ pounds on average.
Brain
Cranium
Three
The portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain expense down to the lower extremity of the trunk and is protected by the spinal column is the ____. how many pairs of spinal nerves extend from it?
Spinal cord

31
A ____ also called a nerve cell, is the primary structural unit of the nervous system and is composed of a:
Cell body, nucleus, dendrites and axon.
Tree like branching of nerve fibers extending from the nerve cell that receives impulses from other neurons are____; the _____ sends impulses away from the cell body to the other neurons, glands or muscles.
Dendrites
Axon
The whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by the connective tissue through which impulses are transmitted are ____ . Where do they have their origin?
Nerves

In the brain and spinal cord
There are two types of nerves: _____ which carry impulses or messages from organ to brain or ____ , which carry impulses from the brain to muscles.
Sensory

Motor
The motor nerve of the face is the ____ cranial nerve
Seventh
How does information about different sensations reach the brain?
Sensory receptors close to skin surface send impulses to brain
The impulses that produce movement are transmited by the ___ nerves.
Motor
What is a reflex and how does it work?
An automatic reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of an impulse from sensory receptor along the sensory nerve to the spinal cord. And impulses sent along a motor neuron to a muscle causing a reaction
Which of the cranial nerves is the largest? This two of the additional names for this nerve. What is the purpose of this nerves?
Fifth cranial

Trifacial, trigeminal

Motor nerve of muscles that control chewing
Why is it important for a cosmetologist understand how the nervous system works?
It will help you give services in a proficient manner such as a massage or shampoo
The circulatory system or cardio vascular system or vascular system controls steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels. It consists of the:
Heart, arteries,veins and capillaries
What is referred to as the body's pump?
Heart
1. Atrium
2. Ventricle
3. Valves
1. Upper thin walled chambers on the right and left
2. Lower thick-walled chambers on the right and left
3. Structures between the chambers that allow the blood to flow in only one direction
Two systems circulate the blood constantly from the time it leaves the heart until it returns. Pulmonary circulation sends the blood from the heart to the lungs to be purified while systematic circulation carries the blood from the heart through the body and back to the heart.
...
Explain how the pulmonary and systemic circulation work.
A) deoxygenated blood flows from body to the right atrium
B) from the right atrium it flows through the tricuspid valve the valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle to the right ventricle
C) right ventricle pumps blood to the pulmonary arteries which move deoxygenated blood to the lungs when blood reaches lungs they release carbon dioxide and get oxygen
d) oxygen rich blood goes back to the heart via pulmonary vein to left atrium
E) left atrium through mitral valve the valve between left atrium and left ventricle of the heart into left ventricle
F) blood leaves left ventricle to the body
The categories of blood vessels are:
Arteries arterioles capillaries venules and veins
The endocrine system is made up of a group of specialized glands that affect:
A) growth
b) development
C) sexual functions
D) health of whole body
What are glands?
Secretory organs that removes /release certain elements from the blood to convert them into new compounds
Name the two main types of glands and their functions
Endocrine - ductless glands thyroid pituitary glands release hormonal secretions directly into the bloodstream
Exocrine - duct glands such as sweat and oil glands of the skin produces substance that travels through small tube like ducts
What are hormones?
Secretions such as insulin adrenaline and estrogen that stimulate functional activity or other secretions in the body
Give three examples of hormones
1 insulin
2 adrenaline
3 estrogen
The digestive system is responsible for
Breaking down foods into nutrients and wastes
How long does the entire food digestion process take
9 hours
The ____ is responsible for purifying the body by eliminating waste
...
The respiratory system enables breathing or _____ and consists ofbthe lungs and air passages
Respiration
The spongy tissue is composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide during one breeding cycle are the _____
Lungs
What are five critical functions that blood perform?
1. Carries water blood and food to cells
2.Carries away carbon dioxide and waste products to be eliminated through lungs skin kidneys and large intestines
3. Helps to equalize body temperature protecting body from extreme heat and cold
4. Works with the immune system to protect body from harmful toxins and bacteria
5. Seals leaks found an injured blood vessels by forming clots the preventing further blood loss
The arteries located on either side of the neck that are the main sources of blood supply to the head face and neck are the
Corroted arteries
The Integumentary system is made of the skin and it's various accessory organs such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair and nails
...
Integument
Natural coveribg
The lymphatic system is cloeskt related to the cardio vascular St stem and consists of the lymohmatic and other structures
...
The purpose of the lymph is to
Clear fluid that circulates in the lymph spaces
List the primary functions of the lymphatic immune system
A) carries abway impurities from the cells
B) protects bodies from disease
C) develops immunities
D) destroys disease causing microorganisms
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