80 terms

psychology test 1

psych final
in your text psychology is defined as
D, scientific study of behavior and mental process
according to your text, the goals of psychology are
D, describe explain predict and change behavior
the psychological perspective that emphasizes objective and environmental influences of overt behavior is called the
D, behavioral perspective
which specialty in psychology focuses on the application of the principles of psychology to the workplace, including personnel selection, leadership and job satisfaction?
A, industrial and organizational psychology
dr.Holloway is conducting research to develop group exercises that will decrease the amount of bullying on school playgrounds. this type of research is?
B, applied research
you believe that most behaviors are a product of your environment, your best friend argues that behaviors are a result of heredity, this is an example of?
A, Nature- nurture controversy
Dr.Dimassio is stydying (PET) brain scans in patients with schizophrenia and comparing them to PET scans in people who have no psychological disorders it is likely that dr. dimassio is a?
C, neuropsychologist
and interrelated set of concepts which explains a body of data is called a?
A, theory
___ investigates how mental processes help people admit to their environment
D, functionalism
____ research involved the manipulation and control of variables and attempts to identify cause and effect
B, descriptive
a researcher is studying the use of scent as a memory aid) one group is asked to listen to a series of lectures in a room that smells of oranges and later to recall the information while sniffing the same scent. the other group is asked to listen to and later to recall the same information in an identical room with no particular odor. what is the independent variable?
D, the scent of the oranges
diane is keeping an in depth record of her conscious awareness including basic sensations, images, feelings and thoughts that she is aware of experience. diana is practicing what Wundt would call?
D, introspection
the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective is associated with?
A, freud
behaviorists were different conceptually from earlier psychologists for all EXCEPT which reason?
C, they believed classical conditioning only applied to animals such as pavlov's dogs
according to your text, behaviorists have been most successful in treating people with problems such as?
C, alcoholism
the psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950's that stressed free will, self actualization and human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking ____ perspective?
C, psychodynamic
Biopsychologists emphasize ____?
A, that behavior is the result of genetics and physiological processes occuring in the brain and nervous system
A new integrative model that proposes that physiological processes occuring in the brain and nervous system
C, electric model
replication increases scientific confidence in a theory if the ____?
B, results are similar
when interviewing subjects, sam is unknowingly giving subtle facial cues that influence the subjects responses toward supporting his hypothethes. this problem is referred to?
B, Experimenter bias
in an experiment, both the experimenter administering the drug and the participants taking the drug are unaware as to who is recieving a placedo and who is recieving the drug. this is known as?
B, double-blind study
when a scientist chooses between using natural observation, case studies, surveys or experimental method, (s)he is chosing the best ___ for her study?
D, research design
two researchers each form a different cultural background, collaborate to conduct research study two times once with members of their own culture and once with members of atleast one other culture. the cross cultural sampling is done specifically to avoid
A, the bias of ethonecentrism
experimenter bias refers to _____
B, the tendency of experimenters to influence the results of a study in the expected direction
researchers gave participants varying amounts of a new "memory" drug then they gave them a story to read and measured their scores on a quiz. the ___ would be the IV and the ___ would be the DV
C, amount of exposure to the drug, quiz scores
dr.Dlooe seperates his subjects into groups. subjects with an even social security number are in the control group and subjects with an odd social security number are in the experimental group, this procedure is an example of
C, random assignment
ivy conceals herself behind a one-way mirror taking notes while watching children interact in a pre school setting. she does not manupulate the behavior of the children. this is an example of
A, naturalistic observation
if you wanted to study someone with a rare disorder such as phtophobia (the fear of light_ your BEST research would be a
C, case study
what are teh advantages of using the descriptive research methods in stead of the experimental method?
B, descriptive research methods minimize artificially
yuri conducts a descriptive study and finds that as the number of absences increase in psychology classes, the grades tend to decrease. this is an example of
B, negative correlation
a correlation coefficient of +0/02 is found in stacys study of birth date and personality trait of extraversion. we can conclude?
A, that the variables are likely to be unrelated
both early and modern day brain researchers have used ___ to study the brain
D, dissection of the brains of deceased humans
johns doctor suspect that he may have had a stroke. she sends john for a procedure in which a computer that creates cross-sectional pictures of the brain reads x-rays directe through the brain at different angles. which type of brain scan is john likely to have?
A, CT scan
____ involves informing participants after the research about the purpose of the study, the nature of the anticipated results and any deception used
B, debfiefing
your text defins hypothesis as?
B, a specific, testable prediction about how one factor, or variable is related to another
under what circumstances may a therapist ethically violate confidentiallity?
B, in cases of serious threat to others, information may be divulged
which school of psychologys past used the techniques of introspection, the experimental method and the comparitive method and placed major imphasis on applying psychological finding to practical situations and on the function of mental procedures in adapting to the environment
B, functionalism
which school of psychologys past emphsized on sexual and agressive impulses?
B, functionalism
if a psychology teacher lets students earn extra credit only by volunteering for research he/she is ethically required to ?
B, provide an alternative extra credit of equal value
what is the single most important key to improving grades that was identified in your text?
A, described study time
the interdiscriplanary field that studies how biological processes relate to the behavioral and mental processes is called?
C, neuroscience
a neuron is ?
D, the part of a nerve cell that recieves information
the branching neuron structors that recieve neural impulses from other neurons and convey them toward the cell body are called?
C, dendrites
the spinal cord is responsible for
D, all of these
the ____ is a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system responsible for arousing the body and mobilizing its energy during times of stress
C, sympathetic nervous system
cells that provide structural nutritional, and other support for the neuron as well as communication with nervous system are called ____ cells
A, neurotransmitter
an action potential is generated _____
B, when positively charged ions move in and out of channels
which of the following statements accurately describes the neuron when it is resting?
A, the fluid outside the axon has more positively charged ions
during the action potential, pores in the membrane open and ___ ions flow into the axon and ___ ions flow out of the axon
C, sodium, potassium
communication within neurons is __, whereas communication between neurons is ___
A, electrical, chemical
excess neurotransmitters left in the synapse after an action potential ___
D, both A and C
a neural impulse can travel
D, 10 meters per second along a bare axon or 100 meters per second along a myelinated axon
the neurotransmitter called ____ affects mood, sleep, appetite, sensory perception, arousal, temperature regulation, pain, suppression and impulsivity, and low levels may play a role in depression
B, serotonin
a chemical substance in the nervous system that is involved in pain control, pleasure, and memory is ____
C, endorphins
excessively high levels of ____ are suspected contributer to some forms of schizophrenia
D, dopamine
most poisons and drugs act as the ___ by replacing, decreasing or enhacing the amount of neurotransmitter
C, all of the above
if you run a marathon, your body will release ___ to elevate your mood and reduce your pain
D, endorphins
____ are neurotransmitters that mimic the effect of opiate drugs such as morphine
C, endorphins
which part of the endorphine system is considered the "master control center"
B, pituitary gland
in your text, the analogy was presented that neurotransmission at the synapse is like _____ where as hormonal communication is like
B, an individual message, a global email
the central nervous system CNS is divided into two main divisions what are they?
D, the brain and spinal cord
the spinal cord is found inside the spinal column and is involved in ____
D, all of the above
you have just touched a mug of hot coffee, your hand immediately and reflexively puls away. this action was controlled by ____
B, spinal cord
the difference between neurons in the PNS and neurons in the CNS is ___
B, neurons in the PNS can regenerate
the process of specialization of vaious parts of the brain for particular function is known as
A, localization of function
sal had a severe stroke that left him unable to talk or a year, however during the second year, he gradually regained his ability to speak. what is the most probable explanation for what happened?
D, the brain rerouted the neurons around the damaged area
in the future, ___ may be used to treat injury, disease, alzheimers, parkinsons, diabetes and strokes
C, stem cells
which structure in the brainstem is responsible for automatic bodily functions such as breathing and heart rate?
D, medulla
this is a small structure that maintains a homeostasis. is also regulates emotions and drives such as hunger, thirst, sex and agression
A, hypothalamus
which brain structure is located at the base of the brain, behind the brainstem and is responsible for coordinating fine muscle movement, balance and some aspects of perception and cognition?
D, cerebellum
the ___ nervous system is responsible for involuntary taskta, whereas the nervous system is responsible for voluntary tasks
A, autonomic, somatic
the ____ is the part of the brain that is considered the major sensory relay center or the "air traffic control center" for the brain
D, thalamus
the hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus and the hypothalamus are all parts of the __
C, limbic system
the motor cortex is found in which of the cereberal cortex lobes
A, frontal lobes
the largest and most prominents part of the human brain is the ____
D, midbrain
which cerebral corex lobes are located at the top of the brain and interpret bodily sensations?
C, parietal lobes
this structure at the base of the brain, behind the brain stem is responsible for maintaning smooth movements, balanceand some aspects of perception ____
C, cerebellum
the ____ is the bundle of nerve fibers connecting the brains left and right hemispheres
C, corpus callosum
the left himisphere specializes in all But this function
D, artistic creativity
diane got very angry at chris and they argued over dinner, after ward diane had a stomache ache this was because ____
A, her sympathetic nervous system activated and shut down digestion during the argument