Established judicial review ; "midnight judges;" John Marshall; power of the Supreme Court.
McColluch v.Maryland 1819
Established national supremacy; established implied powers; use of the elastic clause; state unable to tax fed. Institution; John Marshall; "the power to tax involves the power to destroy.
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
Established separate, but equal.
Schenck v. U.S. 1919
Oliver Wendell Holmes; clear and present danger test; shouting "fire" in a crowded theater; limits on speech, esp. in wartime.
Gitlow v. NY 1925
Established precedent of federalizing Bill of Rights (applying them to the states); states cannot deny freedom of speech - protected through due process clause of Amendment 14.
Palko v. Connecticut 1937
Provided test for determining which parts of the Bill of Rights should be federalized - those which are implicitly or explicitly necessary for liberty to exist.
Brown v. Board, 1st 1954
School segregation unconstitutional; segregation psychologically damaging to blacks; overturned Plessy; use of 14th amendment; judicial activism of Warren Court; unanimous decision.
Brown v. Board, 2nd 1955
Ordered schools to desegregate "with all due and deliberate speed."
Mapp v. Ohio 1961
Established exclusionary rule; illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court; Warren Court's judicial activism.
Engel v. Vitale 1962
Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools by virtue of 1st amd.'s establishment clause and the 14th amd's due process clause; Warren Court's judicial activism.
Baker v. Carr 1962
"One man, one vote." Ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population; Warren Court's judicial activism.
Abbington v. Schempp 1963
Prohibited devotional Bible reading in public schools by virtue of the establishment clause and due process clause; Warren Court's judicial activism.
Gideon v. Wainwright 1963
Ordered states to provide lawyers for those unable to afford them in criminal proceedings. Warren Court's judicial activism in criminal rights.
Wesberry v. Sanders 1963
Ordered House districts to be as near equal in population as possible.
Griswold v. Connecticut 1965
Established right of privacy through 4th and 9th amendments. Set precedent for Roe v. Wade.
Miranda v. Arizona 1966
Established Miranda warnings of counsel and silence. Must be given before questioning. Warren Court's judicial activism in criminal rights.
Epperson v. Arkansas 1968
Prohibited states from banning the teaching of evolution.
Lemon v. Kurtzman 1971
Established 3-part test to determine if establishment clause is violated: nonsecular pupose, advances/inhibits religion, excessive entanglement with govt.
Roe v. Wade 1973
Established national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines: no state interference in the 1st tri., state may regulate to protect health of mother in the 2nd tri., state may regulate to protect the health of the baby in the 3rd tri. Inferred from right of privacy establish in Griswald.
Buckley v. Valeo 1976
1st amendment protects campaign spending; legislatures can limit contributions, but not how much one spends of his own money on campaigns.
UC Regents v. Bakke 1978
Alan Bakke and UC Davis Medical School; strict quotas unconstitutional, but states may allow race to be taken into account as ONE factor in admissions decisions. Bakke admitted.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services 1987
More leeway for states in regulating abortion.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey 1992
States can regulate abortion, but not with regulations that impose an "undue burden" upon women; did not overturn Roe, but gave states more leeway in regulating abortion (24 hr waiting period, parental consent for minors).
Shaw v. Reno 1993
No racial gerrymandering. Race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts.
U.S. v. Lopez 1995
Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Clinton v. NY 1998
Banned presidential use of line item veto
Bush v. Gore 2000
Use of 14th amendment's equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount in the 2000 election.
Atkins v. Virginia 2002
Banned use of death penalty for mentally disabled.
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris 2002
Public money can be used to send disadvantaged children to religious schools in tuition voucher programs.
Board v. Pottawatomie 2002
School districts can impose random drug tests on students involved in extracurricular activities.
Ashcroft v. ACLU 2002
Struck down a federal ban on "virtual" child pornography.
Lawrence v. Texas 2003
Using right of privacy, struck down Texas law banning sodomy.
Gratz v. Bollinger 2003
Struck down use of "bonus points" for race in undergrad admissions at University of Michigan.
Grutter v. Bollinger 2003
Allowed the use of race as a general factor in law school admissions at University of Michigan.
Kelo v. City of New London 2005
Eminent domain case: Local governments may force the sale of private property and make way for private economic development when officials decide it would benefit the public.
Gonzales v. Carhart 2007
Upheld Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003.
Citizen's United v. FEC 2010
Allowed unlimited foreign corporate contributions in US campaigns.