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HOSA Biotechnology Study Guide
Terms in this set (114)
Molecular agents derived from fungi and/or bacteria that impede the growth and survival of some other microorganisms
Proteins developed by the immune system that recognize specific molecules (antigens)
The study of chemical reactions occurring in living things
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Nation research center to improve public health
A strict series of tests that evaluates the effectiveness and safety of a medical treatment
Method of asexual reproduction that produces identical organisms
The amount of a substance as a proportion of another substance
Genetic disorder that clogs the respiratory and digestive system with mucus
Information gathered by documentation
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double stranded helical molecule that stores genetic information for the production of proteins
A disorder affecting the uptake of sugar by cells due to inadequate insulin production or ineffective use of insulin
An experimental technique that is commonly used to identify individuals
An enzyme that binds together disconnected strands of a DNA molecule
A rod-shaped bacterium native to the intestines of mammals; commonly used in genetics researched and by biotechnology companies for the development of products
The ability to yield a desired result or demonstrate that a product does what it claims to do
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The federal agency that enforces environmental laws
The study of moral standards and how they affect conduct
A process by which, in an oxygen deprived environment, a cell converts sugar into lactic acid or ethanol
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The federal agency that regulates the use and production of food, feed, food additives, veterinary drugs, human drugs, and medical devices
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)
An organism produced by genetic engineering that contains DNA from another organism and produces new proteins encoded on the acquire DNA
The study of genes and how they are inherited and expressed
One entire set if an organism's genetic material
Synonym for microorganisms; living things too small to be seen without he aid of a microscope, includes bacteria, most algae, and many fungi
Human Genome Project
A collaborative international effort to sequence and map all the DNA on the 23 human chromosomes; completed in 2000
A protein that facilitates the uptake of sugar into cells from blood
Scientific periodicals or magazines in which scientists publish their experimental work, findings, or conclusions
the manufacturing of large volumes of a product
the branch of biology that studies the structure and activity of macromolecules essential to life (and especially with their genetic role)
a common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
an agency in the Department of Health and Human Services whose mission is to employ science in the pursuit of knowledge to improve human health
control group where conditions produce a negative outcome. Negative control groups help identify outside influences which may be present that were not accounted for when the procedure was created.
drug or medicine that is prepared or dispensed in pharmacies and used in medical treatment
a small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of the bacterial chromosome
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
a method of producing thousands of copies of DNA segment using the enzyme DNA polymerase
group expected to have a positive result, allowing the researcher to show that the experimental set up was capable of producting results.
break large portein complexes
a substance used in a chemical reaction to detect, measure, examine, or produce other substances
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
Recombinant DNA Technology
technology that combines genes from different sources into a single DNA molecule
Research and Development (R&D)
a set of activities undertaken to improve existing products, create new products and improve production
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
having or exhibiting healing powers
Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA)
is a thrombolytic that is administered to some patients having a heart attack or stroke. If administered within a few hours after symptoms begin, this medication can dissolve the damaging blood clots.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
the U.S. governmental agency that oversees and promotes trade, offering export assistance and counseling to U.S. businesses involved in international trade, providing country information and country specialists, and bringing buyers and sellers together.
a factor that can change in an experiment.
(virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
The molecule that stores energy that can be used by the cell
building blocks of proteins
branch of science dealing with the form and structure of body parts
broken down to glucose to provide energy.
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
a structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by β glycosidic linkages.
Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells
introduced in the 1960's and remain the mst commonly used mammalian host cells
green pigment used only in plants to asorb sunlight
an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
bodies within the nucleus made in DNA and proteins called the histones
analyzes the internal structure of individual cells
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
a five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
a double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
a macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
a cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
an instrument that measures the amount or type of light emitted
a simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
Human epithelial cells
the most commonly used substrate for ANA IFA testing is this type of cell line
Having an affinity for water
Afraid of water
A disaccharide that is the primary carbohydrate found in human milk.
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
A small, round cell structure containing chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones.
A very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecules
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
Consisting of many cells
Class of biological polymers that includes DNA and RNA.
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
A membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a cell.
An individual living thing
An organs in the abdominal cavity with two roles. The first is an exocrine role: to produce digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, which are delivered to the small intestine via the pancreatic duct. The second is an endocrine role: to secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.
A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that function as biological membranes.
6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
Processes and functions of an organism
Colored chemical compounds that absorb light
A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Chains of amino acids
Kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi
Inhalation and exhalation of air.
A functional group that defines a particular amino acid and gives it special properties.
a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
(cane sugar) is commonly found in kitchens. It is made from one molecule of glucose and on
A simple carbohydrate with a chemical composition of CH2O. Most sugars form ring structures when in solution.
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
Circulate in the blood and are made up of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol.
A single celled organism
These cells are cells of African green monkey kidneys.
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