Question Combining Forms Answer
abdominal cavity Body pace between abdominal walls, above the pelvis, and below the diaphragm.
acetabul(o) cut-shaped hip socket
adren(o) adrenal glands
alveol(o) air sac, alveolus
anterior At or toward the front(of the body).
arteriol(o) arteriole a tiny artery connecting to a capillary.
arthr(o) joint; articulation
aur(i), auricul(o) ear
blood system Body system that includes blood and all its component parts
bronch(o), bronchi bronchus
calcane(o) heel bone
cardi(o) heart;esophageal opening of the stomach
cardiovascular system Body system that includes the heart and blood vessels; circulatory system.
carp(o) wrist bones
cell Smallest unit of a living structure
cheil(o), chil(o) lip
chol(e), cholo bile
chondri(o), chondro cartilage
col(o), colon(o) colon
connective tissue Fibrous substance that forms the body's supportive framework.
coronal plane Imaginary line that divides the body into anterior and posterior positions
cranial cavity Space in the head that contains the brain
costi, costo rib
cross-sectional plane Imaginary line that insects the body horizontally.
cyst(i), cysto bladder; cyst
deep Away from the surface (of the body).
dent(i), dento tooth
derm(o), derma,dermat(o) skin
diaphragm Muscle that divides the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
digestive system Body system that includes all organs of digestion and waste excretions, from the mouth to the anus.
distal Away from the point of attachment of the trunk.
dorsal At or toward the back of the body
dorsal cavity Main cavity on the back side of the body containing the cranial and spinal cavities.
endocrine system Body system that includes glands that secrete hormones to regulate certain body functions.
epigastic region Area of the body immediately above the stomach.
epithelial tissue Tissue that covers or lines the body or its parts.
frontal plane Imaginary line that divides that body into anterior and posterior positions.
gonad(o) sex glands
hem(a), hemat(o), hemo blood
hemic system Organs involved in the production of blood including the cellular and the molecular components essential in providing defenses against foreign organisms or substances.
histi(o), histo tissue
hypochondriac regions Left and right regions of the body just below the cartilage of the ribs and immediately above the abdomen.
hypogastric regions Areas of the body just below the umbilical region.
hyster(o) uterus, hysteria
iliac regions Left and right regions of the body near the upper portions of the hip bone.
inferior Below another body structure.
inguinal regions Left and right regions of the body near the upper portion of the hip bone.
integumentary system Body system that includes skin, hair, and nails.
lapar(o) abdominal wall
lateral to the side
lateral plane Imaginary line that divides the body perpendicularly to the medial plane.
left lower quadrant (LLQ) Quadrant on the lower left anterior side of the patient's body.
left upper quadrant (LUQ) Quadrant on the upper left anterior side of the patient's body.
lumbar region Left and right regions of the body near the waist on the dorsal (or posterior) side.
lymphatic and immune system Body system that includes the lymph, glands of the lymphatic system, lymphatic vessels, and the specific and nonspecific defenses of the immune system.
medial At or near the middle (of the body)
medial plane Imaginary line that divides the body into equal left and right halves.
midsagittal plane See medial plane
muscle tissue Tissue that is able to contract and relax
musculoskeletal system Body system that includes muscles, bones, and cartilage.
myel(o) spinal cords; bone marrow
nervous system Body system that includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves and controls most body functions by sending and receiving messages.
nervous tissue Specialized tissue that forms nerve cells and is capable of transmitting messages.
neur, neuro nerve
opto, optico eye; sight
organ Group of specialized tissue that performs a specific function.
osseo, ossi bone
ovi, ovo egg; ova
ped(o), pedi food; child
pelvi(o), pelvo pelvic bone; hip
pelvic cavity Body space below the abdominal cavity that includes the reproductive organs.
phren(o), phreni, phrenico mind; diaphragm
plasma, plasmo, plasmat(o) plasma
pleur(o), pleura rib; side; pleura
pneum(a), pneumat(o) lungs; air; breathing
posterior At or toward the back side (of the body)
prone Lying on the stomach with the face down.
proximal At or near the point of attachment of the trunk.
psych(o), psyche mind
pyel(o) renal pelvis
reni, reno kidney
reproductive system Either the male or female body system that controls reproduction
respiratory system Body system that includes the lings and airways and performs breathing.
right lower quadrant (RLQ) Quadrant on the lower right anterior side of the patient's body
right upper quadrant (RUQ) Quadrant on the upper right anterior side of the patient's body.
sagittal plane Imaginary line that divides the body into right and left portions.
sarco fleshy tissue; muscle
sensory system Body system that includes the eyes and ears and those parts of other systems involved in the reactions of the five senses.
sial(o) salivary glands; saliva
sigmoid(o) sigmoid colon
spinal cavity Body space that contains the spinal cord.
splanchn(o), splanchni viscera
superficial at or near the surface (of the body).
superior above another body structure
supine lying on the spine facing upward.
system Any group of organs and ancillary parts that work together to perform a major body function.
ten(o),tendin(o), tendo, tenon(o) tendon
thorac(o), thoracico thorax, chest
thoracic cavity Body space above the abdominal cavity that contains the heart, lungs, and major blood vessels.
thym(o) thymus gland
thyr(o) thyroid gland
tissue Any group of cells that work together to perform a single function.
transverse plane Imaginary line that intersects the body horizontally.
trich(o), trichi hair
umbilical region Area of the body surrounding the umbilicus.
urinary system Body system that includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra and helps maintain homeostasis by removing fluid and dissolved waste.
vas(o) blood vessel; duct
vasculo blood vessel
veni, veno vein
ventral at or toward the front (of the body)
ventral cavity Major cavity in the front of the body containing the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities.
abscess Localized collection of pus and other exudate,usually accompanied by swelling and redness.
acne Inflammatory eruption of the skin, occurring in or near sebaceous glands on the face, neck, shoulder, or upper neck.
acne vulgaris See acne
actinic keratosis Overgrowth of horny skin that forms from overexposure to sunlight; sunburn.
adipose Fatty; relating to fat
allograft Skin graft using donor skin from one person to another
albinism Rare, congenital condition causing either partial or total lack of pigmentation.
alopecia areata Loss of hair in patches, loss of hair in spots, baldness.
alpha-hydroxy acid Agent added to cosmetics to improve the skin's appearance.
anesthetic Agent that relieves pain by blocking nerve sensations
antibacterial Agent that kills or slows the growth of a bacteria.
antibiotic Agent that kills or slows the growth of microorganisms.
antifungal Agent that kills or slows the growth of fungi.
antihistamine Agent that controls allergic reactions by blocking the effectiveness of histamines in the body.
anti-inflammatory Agent that relieves the symptoms of inflammations.
antipruritic Agent that controls itching
antiseptic Agent that kills or slows the growth of microorganisms.
apocrine glands Glands that appear during and after puberty and secret sweat, as from the armpits.
astringent Agent that removes excess oils and impurities from the surface of skin.
autograft Skin graft using skin from one's own body
basal cell carcinoma Slow-growing cancer of the basal cells of teh epidermis, usually a result of sun damage.
biopsy Excision of tissue for microscopic examination.
birthmark Lesion (especially a hemangioma) visible at or soon after birth; nevus
blackhead See Comedo Open hair follicle filled with bacteria and sebum; common in acne; blackhead.
bulla(pl.bullae) Bubble-like blister on the surface of the skin.
burn Damage to the skin caused by exposure to heat, chemicals, electricity, radiation, or other skin irritants.
callus Mass of hard skin that forms as a cover over broken skin on certain areas of the body, especially the feet and hands.
candidiasis Yeast-like fungus on the skin, caused by Candida; characterized by pruritus, white exudate, peeling, and easy bleeding; examples are thrush and diaper rash.
carbuncle Infected area of the skin producing pus and usually accompanied by fever.
cauterize To apply heat to an area to cause coagulation and stop bleeding.
cellulitis Severe inflammation of the dermis and subcutaneous portions of the skin, usually caused by an infection that enters the skin through an opening as a wound; characterized by local heat, redness, pain, and swelling.
chemotherapy Treatment of cancer that uses chemicals to destroy malignant cells
chloasma Group of fairly large, pigmented facial patches, often associated with pregnancy
cicatrix Growth of fibrous tissue inside a wound that forms a scar; also, general term for scar.
cold sore Eruption around the mouth or lips; herpes simplex virus type 1.
collagen Major protein substance that is tough and flexible and that forms connective tissue in the body.
comedo Open hair follicle filled with bacteria and sebum; common in acne; blackhead.
corium See dermis Layer of skin beneath the epidermis containing blood vessels, nerves, and some glands
corn Growth of hard skin, usually on the toes.
corticosteroid Agent with anti-inflammatory properties.
crust Hard layer, especially one found by dried pus, as in a scab.
cryosurgery Surgery that removes tissue by freezing it with liquid nitrogen.
currettage Removal of tissue from an area, such as a wound, by scraping.
cuticle Thin band of epidermis that surrounds the edge of nails, except at the top.
cyst Abnormal sac containing fluid
debridement Removal of dead tissue from a wound.
decubitus ulcer Chronic ulcer on skin over bony parts that are under constant pressure.
depigmentation Loss of color of the skin
dermabrasion Removal of wrinkles, scars, tattoos, and other marks by scraping with brushes or emery papers
dermatitis Inflammation of the skin
diaphoresis Excretion of fluid by the sweat glands; sweating.
discord lupus erythematosus Mild form of lupus
ecchymosis (pl. ecchymoses) Purplish skin patch(bruise) caused by broken blood vessels beneath the surface.
eccrine glands sweat glands that occur all over the body, except where the apocrine glands occur.
eczema severe inflammatory condition of the skin, usually of unknown cause.
electrodesiccation Drying with electrical current.
emollient Agent that smooths or softens skin.
epidermis Outer portion of the skin containing several strata
erosion wearing away of the surface of the skin, especially that caused by friction.
exanthematous viral disease Viral disease that causes a rash on the skin.
excoriation Injury to the surface of the skin caused by a scratch, abrasion, or burn, usually accompanied by some oozing.
exocrine glands glands that secret through ducts toward the outside of the body
exudate Any fluid excreted out of tissue, especially fluid excreted out of an injury to the skin.
fever blister eruption around the mouth or lips; herpes simplex virus Type 1
first-degree burn least severe burn, causes injury to the surfaces of the skin without blistering.
fissure Deep slit in the skin.
fulguration destruction of tissue using electric sparks.
furuncle localized skin infection, usually in a hair follicle and containing pus; boil
gangrene Death of an area of skin, usually caused by loss of blood supply to the area.
genital herpes See herpes simplex virus Type 2 Herpes that recurs on the genitalia; can be easily transmitted from on person to another through sexual contact.
hair follicle tube-like sac in the epidermis out of which the hair shaft develops.
hair root portion of hair beneath the skin surface.
hair shaft portion of the hair visible above the skin surface.
herpes an inflammatory skin disease caused by viruses of the family Herpesviridae.
herpes simplex virus Type 1 Herpes that recurs on the lips and around the area of the mouth, usually during viral illnesses or states of stress.
herpes simplex virus Type 2 Herpes that recurs on the genitalia; can be easily transmitted from one person to another through sexual contact.
herpes zoster Painful herpes that affects nerve roots; shingles.
heterograft skin graft using donor skin from one species to another
hidr(o) sweat, sweat glands
hives See urticaria group of reddish wheals, usually accompanied by pruritus and often caused by an allergy.
homograft skin graft using donor skin from one person to another.
hypodermis Subcutaneous skin layer; layer below the dermis
ichthy(o) fish, scaly
impetigo a type of pyoderma
integument skin and all the elements that are contained within and arise from it
intradermal from within the skin, particularly from the dermis
Kaposi's sarcoma skin cancer associated with AIDS
keloid thick scarring of the skin that forms after an injury or surgery.
keratin hard, horny protein that forms nails and hair.
kerat(o) horny tissue
keratolytic Agent that aids in the removal of warts and corns.
keratosis lesion on the epidermis containing keratin
lesion wound, damage, or injury to the skin.
leukoderma absence of pigment in the skin or in an area of the skin
leukoplakia white patch of mucus membrane on the tongue or cheek
lunula(pl. lunulae) half-moon shaped area at the base of the nail plate.
macule small, flat, noticeably colored spot on the skin.
malignant melanoma virulent skin cancer originating in the melanocytes, usually caused by overexposure to the sun.
Mantoux test test for tuberculosis in which a small dose of tuberculin in injected into the skin with a syringe.
melan(o) black, very dark
melanin pigment produced by melanocytes that determines skin, hair, and eye color.
melanocyte cell in the epidermis that produces melanin
Moh's surgery removal of thin layers of malignant tissue until nonmalignant tissues is found.
nail thin layer of keratin that covers the distal portion of fingers and toes.
neoplasm abnormal tissue growth.
nevus(pl. nevi) birthmark
nodule small knob of tissue
onychia, onychitis inflammation of the nail
onychopathy disease of the nail.
papillary layer thin sublayer of the dermis containing small papillae (nipple-like masses).
papule small, solid elevation on the skin
parasiticide Agent that kills or slows the growth of parasites.
paronychia inflammation, with pus, of the fold surrounding the nail plate.
patch small area of skin differing in color from the surrounding area.
patch test test for allergic sensitivity in which a small dose of antigen is applied to the skin on a small piece of gauze
pediculated polyp polyp that projects upward from slender stalk.
pediculosis lice infestation
pemphigus autoimmune disease that causes skin blistering
petechia(pl. petechiae) tiny hemorrhages beneath the surface of the skin.
pilonidal cyst cyst containing hair, usually found at the lower end of the spinal cord.
plantar wart wart on the sole of the foot.
plaque see patch small area of skin differing in color from the surrounding area.
plastic surgery repair or reconstruction(as of the skin) by means of surgery.
polyp bulging mass of tissue that projects outward from the skin surface.
pore opening or hole, particularly in the skin.
pressure sore See decubitus ulcer. Chronic ulcer on skin over bony parts that are under constant pressure.
psoriasis chronic skin condition accompanied by scaly lesions with extreme pruritus.
purpura skin condition with extensive hemorrhages underneath the skin covering a wide area.
pustule small elevation on the skin containing pus.
pyoderma any inflammation of the skin that produces pus.
radiation therapy treatment of cancer that uses ionizing radiation to destroy malignant cells.
reticular layer Bottom sublayer of the dermis containing reticula(network of structures with connective tissue between).
ringworm fungal infection; tinea
rosacea vascular disease that causes blotchy, red patches on the skin, particularly on the nose and cheeks.
roseola skin eruption small, rosy patches, usually caused by a virus.
rubella disease that causes a viral skin rash; German measles.
rubeola disease that causes a viral skin rash; measles.
scabies skin eruption caused by a mite burrowing into the skin.
scale small plate of hard skin that falls off.
Schick test test for diphtheria
scleroderma thickening of the skin caused by an increase in collagen formation.
scratch test test for allergic sensitivity in which a small amount of antigen is scratched onto the surface of the skin.
sebaceous cyst cyst containing yellow sebum.
sebaceous glands glands in the dermis that open to hair follicles and secrete sebum.
seb(o) sebum, sebaceous glands.
seborrhea overproduction of sebum by the sebaceous glands.
sebum oily substance, usually secreted into hair follicle.
second-degree burn moderately severe burn that affects the epidermis and dermis; usually involves blistering.
sessile polyp polyp that projects upward from a broad base.
shingles viral disease affecting peripheral nerves and caused by herpes zoster.
skin graft placement of fresh skin over a damaged area.
squamous cell carcinoma cancer of the squamous epithelium
squamous epithelium flat, scaly layer of cells that makes up the epidermis.
stratified squamous epithelium layers of epithelial cells that make up the strata of the epidermis.
stratum(pl. strata) layer of tissue, especially a layer of skin.
striae stretch marks made in the collagen fibers of the dermis layer.
subcutaneous layer bottom layer of the skin containing fatty tissue.
sweat glands coiled glands of the skin that secrete perspiration to regulate body temperature and excrete waste products.
systemic lupus erythematosus most severe form of lupus, involving internal organs.
third-degree burns most severe type of burns; involving complete destruction of an area of skin.
tine test test for tuberculosis in which a small dose of tuberculin is injected into a series of sites within a small space with a tine (instrument that punctures the surface of the skin).
tinea fungal infection; ringworm
topical anesthetic anesthetic applied to the surface of the skin.
tumor any mass of tissue; swelling
ulcer open lesion, usually with superficial loss of tissue.
ultraviolet light artificial sunlight used to treat some skin lesions.
urticaria group of reddish wheals, usually accompanied by pruritus and often caused by an allergy.
varicella contagious skin disease, usually occurring during childhood, often accompanied by the formation of pustules; chicken pox.
vascular lesion lesion in a blood vessel that shows through the skin.
verruca(pl. verrucae) flesh-colored growth, sometimes caused by a virus; wart.
vesicle small, raised sac on the skin containing fluid.
vitiligo condition in which white patches appear on otherwise normally pigmented skin.
wart See verruca flesh-colored growth, sometimes caused by virus; wart
wheal itchy patch of raised skin.
whitehead closed comedo that does not contain the dark bacteria present in blackheads.
xenograft See heterograft skin graft using donor skin from species to another.
DLE Discoid Lupus Erythematosus
PPD Psoralen-ultraviolet a light therapy
SLE System Lupus Erythematosus
acetabulum cup-shaped depression in the hip bone into which the top of the femur fits.
acromi(o) end point of the scapula
acromion part of the scapula that connects to the clavicle.
amphiarthroses cartilaginous joint having some movement at the union of two bones
amputation Cutting off of a limb or part of a limb.
analgesic to relieve pain aspirin acetaminophen (NSAIDS are also analgesics.) Agents that relieve pain.
ankle Hinged area between the lower leg bones and the bones of the foot.
ankyl(o) bent crooked