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agricultural, farmer, usually JDR

Alexander Hamilton

Washington's Secretary of Treasury, Federalist, urged paying off national debt - whiskey tax, national treasury, financial plan

Alien and Sedition Acts

Naturalization Law: Feds. raised residence requirements for aliens to become citizens. Alien Act: could deport/arrest any suspicious foreigner. Alien Enemy Act: if war with country, can arrest suspicious alien citizens from that country. Sedition Act: anyone who impeded policies of gov. was liable to fine & imprisonment


Hamilton wanted federal gov. to assume debts of states as part of his financial plan

Bank of the United States

promoted by Hamilton, won over, Washington signed bank into law, pro-central gov.

Bill of Rights

1791: reason many states ratified Constitution, secured freedoms and rights of the people


Washington's was diverse: Jefferson, Hamilton, Knox

Citizen Genet

landed at Charleston, met JDRs, equipped privateers to fight British in Florida & Canada, went to Philadelphia, Washington rejected his ideas (they endangered neutrality), US granted him citizenship to escape possible execution in France

compact theory

federal gov. is agent of states, so states can declare laws null & void, expressed in Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions

Farewell Address

Washington stepped down from presidency, warned against political parties & permanent alliances with foreign nations


Hamilton, national bank, financial plan, federal gov., mostly pro-British, mostly merchants, manufacturers, shippers

French Revolution

France threw back Austrian armies, declared itself a republic, Feds. nervous that they would have to have some bloodshed in US as well

Hamilton's Financial Plan

federal gov. would pay state debts, national treasury, imposed duties/taxes (whiskey), national currency

Henry Knox

Washington's Secretary of War

implied powers

rights granted to Congress, loose interpretation of Constitution

Jay's Treaty

Washington sent Jay to England to avoid war, Hamilton sabotaged, impressment, US had to pay off pre-Revolutionary War debts to Britain, Southern JDRs = furious, bad turnout

Jeffersonian Republicans

strict interpretation, states' rights, no national bank, mostly pro-French, mostly farmers

John Adams

became 2nd president, Jefferson = his vice, hated Hamilton, sensitive situation with France

John Jay

first Chief Justice of US, Jay's Treaty

Judiciary Act of 1789

created effective federal courts (including Supreme Court), did not define powers of each

Neutrality Proclamation

1793: nation was disunited & weak, Washington declares US's neutrality in war between Britain & France


same as compact theory

Pinckney Treaty

1795: gave US free navigation of Mississippi & north of Florida

strict construction

JDR policy of adhering to the dictations of the Constitution, if not mentioned, not legal/constitutional

Thomas Jefferson

opposed national bank, strict interpretation, Democratic-Republican, states' rights, compact theory, appeal to common man, absorbed many major Federalist programs --> smooth transition into presidency

Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions

1798-99: compact theory, kill Alien & Sedition Laws, KY: Jefferson, VA: Madison - (less extreme)

Whiskey Rebellion

farmers revolted against Hamilton's excise tax, taxation without representation, Washington sent large army to crush it, showed gov. was strong

XYZ Affair

Adams sent 3 envoys to France, where they were bribed by French agents --> turned down offer

Revolution of 1800

thought Jefferson would make BIG changes, peaceful transfer of power, JDRs = "people's party"

Aaron Burr

tied with Jefferson for president --> lost, killed Hamilton in duel while scheming with Feds. to make NY & New England secede, arrested for treason

Albert Gallatin

Jefferson's Secretary of Treasury, reduced national debt while balancing budget

Chesapeake incident

British tried to put blockade around US --> leads US toward war, British attack US ship --> anti-British sentiments

economic coercion

led to Embargo Act, trying to get country's attention by hurting it financially (Non-Intercourse Act)

Embargo Act

1807: forbade export of all goods from US to any foreign nation, thought it would hurt Britain & France --> reverse - but US becomes self-sufficient

Henry Clay

speaker of the House, American System, Great Compromiser, helped guide Missouri Compromise through Congress, Tariff of Abomination, Whig party (anti-Jackson)


power of House of Rep. to make a legal statement of charges against an official


illegal seizure of men and forcing them to serve on ships, Napoleon seized US ships that entered British ports --> US = furious

James Madison

became president in 1809, didn't appear a strong leader, tricked by Napoleon into War of 1812

John Marshall

Chief Justice, Supreme Court Justice, Fed., pro-capitalist, helped bolster power of gov. at expense of states

Judicial Review

Supreme Court has power to determine a law's constitutionality

Judiciary Act of 1801

passed by Feds. on last days of congressional domination, created Fed. judges

Louisiana Purchase Treaty

1803: doubles size of country, achieved because of national bank

Macon's Bill #2

1810: permitted US trade with whole world and promised US restoration of trade to France/England if either dropped their commercial restrictions --> duped by Napoleon

Marbury vs. Madison

power to Supreme Court to review all laws and declare constitutionality (Judicial Review)

Meriweather Lewis

explored Louisiana territory with Clark & Sacajawea, returned with info about land & people

midnight judges

Adams appoints Fed. judges before Jefferson becomes president, leaves Fed. stamp on gov.

mosquito fleet

Jefferson sent ships to North African shore

Napoleon Bonaparte

Louisiana Purchase, renewed war with Britain, pulled US into War of 1812

Non-Intercourse Act

1809: repealed Embargo Act, reopened trade with all nations except France & England --> economic coercion

Orders in Council

London issued to close French ports to foreign shipping (including US) unless they stopped at a British port first


1806: organizes Confederacy against whites on their land, disorganized, good orator, thought Indians should live separate from whites

the Prophet

killed by William Henry Harrison at Tippecanoe, fought with Tecumseh

War Hawks

aggressive Western Congressmen who cried out against the Indian threat on the frontier, call for war against Britain - suspected of supplying Indians with weapons

William Marbury

one of Adams's midnight judges, Marbury vs. Madison - removed from his position

Zebulon Pike

explored Mississippi (1805-06), and Southern Louisiana, Pike's Peak

Adams-Onis Treaty

1819: transcontinental treaty, Spain gave Florida to US, settled border dispute in Texas, triumph of American diplomacy

American System

1824: Henry Clay, strong banking system, protective tariff to promote manufacturing in North, roads & canals

Andrew Jackson

killed Indians & British accused of assisting Indians in Florida

Cohens vs. Virginia

1821: right of Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in all questions involving powers of the federal gov.

Daniel Webster

Darmouth vs. Woodward, renowned constitutional scholar & lawyer

Dartmouth College vs. Woodward

1819: state legislature of New Hampshire took over Dartmouth College, college sued to regain control, Dartmouth Charter was protected by Constitution - state couldn't alter

Era of Good Feelings

3 presidents: Jefferson, Madison, Monroe; no party opposition, after war of 1812, patriotism, US = completely independent, American System

Fletcher vs. Peck

1810: Sanctity of Contracts over state laws - boost private business, corrupt Georgia legislature, federal law supersedes state law --> GA can't interfere with contract

Gibbons vs. Ogden

1824: shipping rights on Hudson, Congress can regulate interstate commerce over state rights, power of federal gov. over states

Hartford Convention

death of Fed. Party, wanted to secede from union, Monroe became president

internal improvements

result of American system, network of roads & canals


Washingtonian policy of avoiding foreign affairs & entangling alliances

James Monroe

very popular, Era of Good Feelings, Missouri Compromise, Monroe Doctrine

John Quincy Adams

Monroe's Secretary of State, wrote Monroe Doctrine

McCulloch vs. Maryland

implied powers, national bank was necessary to fulfill the gov.'s duties to manage $, creating bank was constitutional, states can't tax a federal institution

Missouri Compromise

Missouri would be admitted as slave state, Maine admitted as a free state --> maintain balance, new states north of 36°30' line = free, south of the line = slave

Monroe Doctrine

1823: non-colonization, nonintervention, no trading of colonies in US or Latin America


after war of 1812, art & literature flourished


Monroe Doctrine - US protected Latin America from imperialist powers


Monroe Doctrine - US protected Latin America from military intervention

Ohio Fever

movement of many immigrants after war of 1812 to Ohio Valley - available cheap land, elimination of Indian threat, and need for land by tobacco farmers who exhausted their land

Rush Bagot Agreement

agreement with England, non-proliferation, limits number of warships in Great Lakes


South didn't like Tariff of 1816 - only benefited North, same with roads & canals (American System in general)

Tallmadge Amendment

no more slaves would be brought into Missouri, gradual emancipation of children at age 25 born to slave parents already in Missouri

Tariffs of 1816

protective tariff on dutiable imports, part of American System, upset the South


William Henry Harrison burned town, killed the Prophet

Treaty of Ghent

1814: a draw in the war, return to pre-war arrangements, end to hostilities, did not mention impressment!

William Henry Harrison

attacked Tecumseh & Prophet at Tippecanoe, 1813: brings partial victory, British confederacy crushed, 1814: defeat Napoleon --> Britain goes offensive, Battle of Thames --> defeat British, morale boost

Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia

1831: federal gov. over state legislature

Samuel Adams

The "Engineer of the Revolution" who opposed the Constitution because he now distrusted change.


The state in which John Marshall supported the ratification of the Constitution.

Annapolis Convention

The meeting called by Virginia in 1786 for the purpose of revising the rules of commerce.


The name that was given to opponents of the Constitution who feared that states' rights would be swallowed up by the new government.

Articles of Confederation

The first constitution of the U.S. which was passed by Congress in 1777.

Allen Brothers

Along the northern frontier in the post-Revolution era, Britain conspired with these men in hopes of annexing Vermont.

Church Disestablishment in Virginia

The post-Revolution struggle to separate religion and government in Virginia.

Benjamin Franklin

The 81-year-old elder statesman who contributed some of the leadership for the Constitutional Convention.

Conservative Counterrevolution

The term used by Bailey to describe how the Constitutional Convention delegates had restored the political and economic stability of the colonial years.

Electoral College

The group designated by the Constitutional Convention to elect the president on behalf of the people.

Empress of China

The U.S. ship that led the way in 1784 to opening East Asian markets.

Episcopal Church

The church that grew from the demise of the Anglican Church after the Revolution.

The Federalist

The essays written in support of the Constitution that remain the most penetrating commentary ever written on the subject.


The name given to supporters of the Constitution in 1787 who wanted a strong central government.


The state whose ratification of the Constitution saw opponents forcibly seated in order to ensure quorum.

Great Compromise

The agreement at the Constitutional Convention that resulted in the Senate for small states and the House for large states.

Alexander Hamilton

The youngest of the "Founding Fathers" who at age 32 was advocating a powerful central government.

Loyalists or Tories

The group of individuals who had many of their holdings confiscated and cut up into smaller parcels after the Revolution.

John Jay

The Federalist author who was the first chief justice of the Supreme Court.

Land Ordinance of 1785

The document of 1785 which provided the land of the Ohio River area should be surveyed and divided into townships and sections.

James Madison

The "Father of the Constitution" who helped author The Federalist.

Patrick Henry

The Famous but skeptical Virginian who was selected but refused to.


The large state whose ratification of the Constitution was secured after assurances that a bill of rights would be added.

Gouverneur Morris

The Pennsylvania delegate to the Constitutional Convention who spoke more frequently than all others and served as principal draftsman of the document.

Mutiny of Pennsylvania Troops

The event in 1783 which proved that the new congress could not even protect itself from gross indignities.

New Hampshire

The state whose ratification of the Constitution was made possible by adjourning their convention until enough opponents' minds could be changed.

Western Land

The first major dispute our nation had occurred near the end of the Revolution when six states complained about large holdings of this by seven other states.

New Jersey

The state that proposed a plan at the Constitutional Convention that provided equal representation by states regardless of size or population.

North African Pirates

The group of people who ravaged American commerce and enslaved Yankee seamen in the Mediterranean during the post-Revolutionary years.

Northern Border of U.S.

The location of a chain of trading posts held by Britain after the Revolutionary War, presumably because of the failure of American states to carry out treaty requirements with regard to debts and Loyalists.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

The post-Revolutionary document that spelled out how new territories could become states equal to the original thirteen.

Dey of Algers

The African who Bailey called a "Founding Father" because his actions helped give the Constitutional Convention of 1787 a greater urgency.


The name for the ancient right of the eldest son to inherit all the property of the father.

New York

The only state that permitted a manhood suffrage vote for members of the convention ratifying the Constitution.

Shays' Rebellion

Impoverished farmers demanded cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of mortgage foreclosures. To enforce their demands in 1786-1787, they grabbed their muskets and challenged local authorities in this event.

Lord Sheffield

The Englishman who argued in the post-Revolution era that seeking American trade was not necessary but that trade would naturally follow.

Slavetrade Compromise

The argreement in the Constitutional Convention whereby the importation of slaves would cease in 1807.

Three-Fifths Compromise

The agreement at the Constitutional Convention whereby a slave could be counted as less than one person for purposes of representation.


The state that proposed the plan at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation in Congress based on population.

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