Washington's Secretary of Treasury, Federalist, urged paying off national debt - whiskey tax, national treasury, financial plan
Alien and Sedition Acts
Naturalization Law: Feds. raised residence requirements for aliens to become citizens. Alien Act: could deport/arrest any suspicious foreigner. Alien Enemy Act: if war with country, can arrest suspicious alien citizens from that country. Sedition Act: anyone who impeded policies of gov. was liable to fine & imprisonment
Hamilton wanted federal gov. to assume debts of states as part of his financial plan
Bank of the United States
promoted by Hamilton, won over, Washington signed bank into law, pro-central gov.
Bill of Rights
1791: reason many states ratified Constitution, secured freedoms and rights of the people
Washington's was diverse: Jefferson, Hamilton, Knox
landed at Charleston, met JDRs, equipped privateers to fight British in Florida & Canada, went to Philadelphia, Washington rejected his ideas (they endangered neutrality), US granted him citizenship to escape possible execution in France
federal gov. is agent of states, so states can declare laws null & void, expressed in Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions
Washington stepped down from presidency, warned against political parties & permanent alliances with foreign nations
Hamilton, national bank, financial plan, federal gov., mostly pro-British, mostly merchants, manufacturers, shippers
France threw back Austrian armies, declared itself a republic, Feds. nervous that they would have to have some bloodshed in US as well
Hamilton's Financial Plan
federal gov. would pay state debts, national treasury, imposed duties/taxes (whiskey), national currency
Washington's Secretary of War
rights granted to Congress, loose interpretation of Constitution
Washington sent Jay to England to avoid war, Hamilton sabotaged, impressment, US had to pay off pre-Revolutionary War debts to Britain, Southern JDRs = furious, bad turnout
strict interpretation, states' rights, no national bank, mostly pro-French, mostly farmers
became 2nd president, Jefferson = his vice, hated Hamilton, sensitive situation with France
first Chief Justice of US, Jay's Treaty
Judiciary Act of 1789
created effective federal courts (including Supreme Court), did not define powers of each
1793: nation was disunited & weak, Washington declares US's neutrality in war between Britain & France
same as compact theory
1795: gave US free navigation of Mississippi & north of Florida
JDR policy of adhering to the dictations of the Constitution, if not mentioned, not legal/constitutional
opposed national bank, strict interpretation, Democratic-Republican, states' rights, compact theory, appeal to common man, absorbed many major Federalist programs --> smooth transition into presidency
farmers revolted against Hamilton's excise tax, taxation without representation, Washington sent large army to crush it, showed gov. was strong
Adams sent 3 envoys to France, where they were bribed by French agents --> turned down offer
Revolution of 1800
thought Jefferson would make BIG changes, peaceful transfer of power, JDRs = "people's party"
tied with Jefferson for president --> lost, killed Hamilton in duel while scheming with Feds. to make NY & New England secede, arrested for treason
Jefferson's Secretary of Treasury, reduced national debt while balancing budget
British tried to put blockade around US --> leads US toward war, British attack US ship --> anti-British sentiments
led to Embargo Act, trying to get country's attention by hurting it financially (Non-Intercourse Act)
1807: forbade export of all goods from US to any foreign nation, thought it would hurt Britain & France --> reverse - but US becomes self-sufficient
speaker of the House, American System, Great Compromiser, helped guide Missouri Compromise through Congress, Tariff of Abomination, Whig party (anti-Jackson)
power of House of Rep. to make a legal statement of charges against an official
illegal seizure of men and forcing them to serve on ships, Napoleon seized US ships that entered British ports --> US = furious
became president in 1809, didn't appear a strong leader, tricked by Napoleon into War of 1812
Chief Justice, Supreme Court Justice, Fed., pro-capitalist, helped bolster power of gov. at expense of states
Supreme Court has power to determine a law's constitutionality
Judiciary Act of 1801
passed by Feds. on last days of congressional domination, created Fed. judges
Louisiana Purchase Treaty
1803: doubles size of country, achieved because of national bank
Macon's Bill #2
1810: permitted US trade with whole world and promised US restoration of trade to France/England if either dropped their commercial restrictions --> duped by Napoleon
Marbury vs. Madison
power to Supreme Court to review all laws and declare constitutionality (Judicial Review)
explored Louisiana territory with Clark & Sacajawea, returned with info about land & people
Adams appoints Fed. judges before Jefferson becomes president, leaves Fed. stamp on gov.
Jefferson sent ships to North African shore
Louisiana Purchase, renewed war with Britain, pulled US into War of 1812
1809: repealed Embargo Act, reopened trade with all nations except France & England --> economic coercion
Orders in Council
London issued to close French ports to foreign shipping (including US) unless they stopped at a British port first
1806: organizes Confederacy against whites on their land, disorganized, good orator, thought Indians should live separate from whites
killed by William Henry Harrison at Tippecanoe, fought with Tecumseh
aggressive Western Congressmen who cried out against the Indian threat on the frontier, call for war against Britain - suspected of supplying Indians with weapons
one of Adams's midnight judges, Marbury vs. Madison - removed from his position
explored Mississippi (1805-06), and Southern Louisiana, Pike's Peak
1819: transcontinental treaty, Spain gave Florida to US, settled border dispute in Texas, triumph of American diplomacy
1824: Henry Clay, strong banking system, protective tariff to promote manufacturing in North, roads & canals
killed Indians & British accused of assisting Indians in Florida
Cohens vs. Virginia
1821: right of Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in all questions involving powers of the federal gov.
Darmouth vs. Woodward, renowned constitutional scholar & lawyer
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
1819: state legislature of New Hampshire took over Dartmouth College, college sued to regain control, Dartmouth Charter was protected by Constitution - state couldn't alter
Era of Good Feelings
3 presidents: Jefferson, Madison, Monroe; no party opposition, after war of 1812, patriotism, US = completely independent, American System
Fletcher vs. Peck
1810: Sanctity of Contracts over state laws - boost private business, corrupt Georgia legislature, federal law supersedes state law --> GA can't interfere with contract
Gibbons vs. Ogden
1824: shipping rights on Hudson, Congress can regulate interstate commerce over state rights, power of federal gov. over states
death of Fed. Party, wanted to secede from union, Monroe became president
result of American system, network of roads & canals
Washingtonian policy of avoiding foreign affairs & entangling alliances
very popular, Era of Good Feelings, Missouri Compromise, Monroe Doctrine
John Quincy Adams
Monroe's Secretary of State, wrote Monroe Doctrine
McCulloch vs. Maryland
implied powers, national bank was necessary to fulfill the gov.'s duties to manage $, creating bank was constitutional, states can't tax a federal institution
Missouri would be admitted as slave state, Maine admitted as a free state --> maintain balance, new states north of 36°30' line = free, south of the line = slave
1823: non-colonization, nonintervention, no trading of colonies in US or Latin America
after war of 1812, art & literature flourished
Monroe Doctrine - US protected Latin America from imperialist powers
Monroe Doctrine - US protected Latin America from military intervention
movement of many immigrants after war of 1812 to Ohio Valley - available cheap land, elimination of Indian threat, and need for land by tobacco farmers who exhausted their land
Rush Bagot Agreement
agreement with England, non-proliferation, limits number of warships in Great Lakes
South didn't like Tariff of 1816 - only benefited North, same with roads & canals (American System in general)
no more slaves would be brought into Missouri, gradual emancipation of children at age 25 born to slave parents already in Missouri
Tariffs of 1816
protective tariff on dutiable imports, part of American System, upset the South
William Henry Harrison burned town, killed the Prophet
Treaty of Ghent
1814: a draw in the war, return to pre-war arrangements, end to hostilities, did not mention impressment!
William Henry Harrison
attacked Tecumseh & Prophet at Tippecanoe, 1813: brings partial victory, British confederacy crushed, 1814: defeat Napoleon --> Britain goes offensive, Battle of Thames --> defeat British, morale boost
Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
1831: federal gov. over state legislature
The "Engineer of the Revolution" who opposed the Constitution because he now distrusted change.
The state in which John Marshall supported the ratification of the Constitution.
The meeting called by Virginia in 1786 for the purpose of revising the rules of commerce.
The name that was given to opponents of the Constitution who feared that states' rights would be swallowed up by the new government.
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution of the U.S. which was passed by Congress in 1777.
Along the northern frontier in the post-Revolution era, Britain conspired with these men in hopes of annexing Vermont.
Church Disestablishment in Virginia
The post-Revolution struggle to separate religion and government in Virginia.
The 81-year-old elder statesman who contributed some of the leadership for the Constitutional Convention.
The term used by Bailey to describe how the Constitutional Convention delegates had restored the political and economic stability of the colonial years.
The group designated by the Constitutional Convention to elect the president on behalf of the people.
Empress of China
The U.S. ship that led the way in 1784 to opening East Asian markets.
The church that grew from the demise of the Anglican Church after the Revolution.
The essays written in support of the Constitution that remain the most penetrating commentary ever written on the subject.
The name given to supporters of the Constitution in 1787 who wanted a strong central government.
The state whose ratification of the Constitution saw opponents forcibly seated in order to ensure quorum.
The agreement at the Constitutional Convention that resulted in the Senate for small states and the House for large states.
The youngest of the "Founding Fathers" who at age 32 was advocating a powerful central government.
Loyalists or Tories
The group of individuals who had many of their holdings confiscated and cut up into smaller parcels after the Revolution.
The Federalist author who was the first chief justice of the Supreme Court.
Land Ordinance of 1785
The document of 1785 which provided the land of the Ohio River area should be surveyed and divided into townships and sections.
The "Father of the Constitution" who helped author The Federalist.
The Famous but skeptical Virginian who was selected but refused to.
The large state whose ratification of the Constitution was secured after assurances that a bill of rights would be added.
The Pennsylvania delegate to the Constitutional Convention who spoke more frequently than all others and served as principal draftsman of the document.
Mutiny of Pennsylvania Troops
The event in 1783 which proved that the new congress could not even protect itself from gross indignities.
The state whose ratification of the Constitution was made possible by adjourning their convention until enough opponents' minds could be changed.
The first major dispute our nation had occurred near the end of the Revolution when six states complained about large holdings of this by seven other states.
The state that proposed a plan at the Constitutional Convention that provided equal representation by states regardless of size or population.
North African Pirates
The group of people who ravaged American commerce and enslaved Yankee seamen in the Mediterranean during the post-Revolutionary years.
Northern Border of U.S.
The location of a chain of trading posts held by Britain after the Revolutionary War, presumably because of the failure of American states to carry out treaty requirements with regard to debts and Loyalists.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
The post-Revolutionary document that spelled out how new territories could become states equal to the original thirteen.
Dey of Algers
The African who Bailey called a "Founding Father" because his actions helped give the Constitutional Convention of 1787 a greater urgency.
The name for the ancient right of the eldest son to inherit all the property of the father.
The only state that permitted a manhood suffrage vote for members of the convention ratifying the Constitution.
Impoverished farmers demanded cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of mortgage foreclosures. To enforce their demands in 1786-1787, they grabbed their muskets and challenged local authorities in this event.
The Englishman who argued in the post-Revolution era that seeking American trade was not necessary but that trade would naturally follow.
The argreement in the Constitutional Convention whereby the importation of slaves would cease in 1807.
The agreement at the Constitutional Convention whereby a slave could be counted as less than one person for purposes of representation.
The state that proposed the plan at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation in Congress based on population.