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Chp 8: Political Geography
Terms in this set (42)
(A) An organization that consists of a number of parties or groups united in an alliance or league
(B) One well-known example of a confederation was the Southern portion of America during the Civil War.
(A) Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology
(B) In Wallerstein's World Systems Theory, the core is at the top of the pyramid, generating more wealth than the periphery and the semi-periphery. An example of a core country would be the US, Canada, and Australia.
(A) Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology
(B) In Wallerstein's World Systems Theory, the periphery is the largest portion at the bottom. Examples of periphery countries include most of Africa (excluding South Africa), Colombia, and Chile.
(A) Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring
(B) While the core and periphery are their own processes, the semi-periphery is a blend of the two processes. Places exploited by the core in turn exploit the periphery. Examples of semi-periphery countries are Russia, Mexico, and Brazil.
Wallerstein's World Systems Theory
(A) Theory by Immanuel Wallerstein proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world
(B) His theory is illuminated by the three-tier pyramidal structure of the core, semi-periphery, and periphery.
(A) Process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
(B) It can be achieved by reworking a constitution to establish a federal system that recognizes the permanency of regional governments, as Spain did. It can also be achieved by governments devolving power without altering constitutions.
(A) Theory that a political event in one country will cause similar events in neighboring countries, like a falling domino causing an entire row of upended dominoes to fall
(B) An example of this occurred in the Cold War, when countries like the US were afraid of communism In the Soviet Union causing a domino effect on the rest of Europe and nearby areas.
(A) A body of electors chosen or appointed by a larger group
(B) An example is in the US, a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president.
(A) A politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe
(B) The European Union, consisting of countries such as Poland, Romania, Austria, etc., is a supranational organization.
(A) Portion of territory within or surrounded by a larger territory whose inhabitants are culturally or ethnically distinct
(B) For example, the Vatican City is an enclave of Rome. The Vatican City has its own government and is independent from Rome and Italy. Therefore, it is not bound by the rules of Rome, as well as the rules of Italy.
(A) Portion of territory of one state completely surrounded by territory of another or others, as viewed by the home territor
(B) Alaska is an example of an exclave. Although it is separated form the U.S., it shares boundaries with Canada. Another example is Hawaii, which is completely separated from the U.S. by the Pacific Ocean.
(A) A political-territorial system wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interests
(B) Federal systems allow the various entities they represent their own identities, laws, policies, and customs in certain spheres. For example, Nigeria allows their states to determine whether or not they want to follow Shar'ia laws.
(A) Interplay among geography, power, politics, and international relations
(B) The heartland theory developed by Mackinder in the British/American school is an example of geopolitics at work.
(A) Redistricting for advantage, or the practice of dividing areas into electoral districts
(B) This practice serves to give one political party an electoral majority an electoral majority in a large number of districts while concentrating the voting strength of the opposition in as few districts as possible.
(A) A geopolitical hypothesis, proposed by British geographer Halford Mackinder during the early twentieth century
(B) His theory states that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world. He further proposed that since Eastern Europe controlled access to the Eurasian interior, its ruler would command the vast "heartland" to the east.
(A) a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force
(B) As a result of the Spanish-American War, the US became an imperial force by exerting control over the Phillippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.
(A) Rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place
(B) Although it is often established and maintained through political structures, it creates unequal cultural and economic relations. Britain's occupation of the Americas before the American Revolution is an example of colonialism.
(A) Term encompassing all citizens of a state
(B) It also refers to a tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes.
(A) Recognized member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by a people who see themselves as a single, united nation
(B) There are nearly no true nation-states, although most strive to be nation-states.
(A) State that stretches across borders and across states
(B) The territory of Transylvania between Romania and Hungary is an example of a multi-nation state.
(A) nation that does not have a state
(B) An example of a stateless nation is the Palestinians. Palestinian Arabs have gained control over the Gaza Strip and fragments of Occupied Territories, but many continue to live in Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Syria, and other Arab states.
(A) the North American Free Trade Agreement, which reating one of the world's largest free trade zones between the US, Canada, & Mexico
(B) It was created in 1994, and it laid the foundations for strong economic growth and rising prosperity. Since then, NAFTA has demonstrated how free trade increases wealth and competitiveness, delivering real benefits to families, farmers, workers, manufacturers, and consumers.
(A) North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty
(B) It became in effect in 1949 with headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, including countries such as the US,the UK, France, Austria, etc.
(A) the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is a permanent, intergovernmental Organization
(B) It was created in 1960 and includes Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela.
(A) Process by which a majority of the population is from the minority, in the context of determining representative districts
(B) Following the 1990 census, the US increased the number of majority-minority districts in the House of Representatives from 27 to 52. Ideally, they are compact, contiguous, and follow existing political units.
(A) Economic process of controlling trade
(B) In a general sense, it is associated with the promotion of commercialism and trade. It was also a protectionist policy of European states in the 1500s-1700s that promoted a state's economic position in the contest with other countries. The acquisition of gold and silver and the maintenance of a favorable trade balance were central to this policy.
(A) Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
(B) For example, after the 2000 census, New York lost 2 representatives and Georgia gained 2 representatives.
(A) Theory that Eurasia's rimland, the coastal areas, is the key to controlling the World Island
(B) This theory, created by Nichols Spyman in 1942, counters Mackinder's heartland theory.
(A) Process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government
(B) Self-determination became prominent after World War I.
(A) Venture involving 3 or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
(B) An example of a supranational organization is the European Union.
(A) State whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided, or of a group of religious leaders
(B) The opposite of a theocracy is a secular state. An example was in post-Khomeini Iran.
(A) World order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process
(B) The US is seen as a unilateral power, and has been since the end of World War II.
(A) Nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of a state
(B) This is one form of government, as well as federal states. France, China, and Japan are also unitary states.
(A) International organization formed to increase political and economic cooperation among member countries
(B) The organization works on economic and social development programs, improving human rights and reducing global conflicts. It was created in 1945 after World War II in replacement of the League of Nations.
Explain the different types of boundaries, providing examples for each.
There are a few different types of boundaries. One type is geometric boundaries, which are defined, delimited, and demarcated as straight lines or arcs. Many countries in Africa have geometric boundaries because in the Berlin Conference, colonial powers used arbitrary reference points and drew straight lines. There are physical-political boundaries, which are defined, delimited, and demarcated by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape, such as a river or crest ridges of a mountain ridge. An example is the Rio Grande between the US and Mexico.
Describe the concepts of centripetal and centrifugal forces and identify examples for specific case studies.
Centripetal forces are forces that unify a country, such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith. For example, Hinduism in Nepal and India brings people together as they feel a sense of unity. Centrifugal forces are forces that tend to divide a country, such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences. In Pakistan, religious Muslims groups of Shiite and Sunni, act as a centrifugal force because they fight amongst each other and break apart the state rather than unify it.
Assess the viability, strengths, and weaknesses of different state shapes and governments.
States can be shaped in different ways. For example, a state can be elongated, meaning it is long and narrow, like Chile. While elongated states have varieties of landscapes, it is difficult to defend and difficult to govern the extreme sections at the top and bottom because of the distance. Furthermore, there are fragmented states, which are states that is separated by a physical or human barrier. This separation creates difficulty in communication and governing. In addition, there are perforated states, which completely surrounds other states. The surrounded nation can only be reached by going through one country. More problems can arise if there is hostility between the two nations. This makes it difficult to enter the surrounding nation. Another type is prorupted states, which have a long extension, or an extended arm of territory. This protrusion gives the state several advantages. For example, the state gets easy access to the coast and the local resources around it. In addition, prorupted states are also able to prevent a rival access. Finally are compact states, which are small and centralized. They are the simplest to manage, since the government is close to all portions of the state. The compact form helps to keep the country together by making communications easier within it. In addition, compact states are much easier to defend than states of other shapes. However, compact states are primarily small in size, and therefore may not have as many natural resources as larger states have.
Describe the impacts of colonialism on South America, Africa, and Asia.
The political organization of space and the global world economy remain despite the end of colonialism. Many economies of former colonies are not independent. However, colonialism also caused borders to be put in areas where they did not belong, grouping together various cultures, sparking ethnic conflicts.
Discuss the role of international organizations in the world and identify and describe specific examples.
There are many different international organizations in the world, each with different functions. Such organizations include: the United Nations, NATO, Red Cross/Red Crescent, WHO, OPEC, EU, etc. The UN works to keep peace, develop friendly relationships among countries, and improve quality of life for the world's people.
Define and provide specific examples for nations, states, stateless nations, and nationless states.
Nations are defined as all citizens of a state; an example is the Basques in Spain. A state is defined as a politically organized territory administered by a sovereign government and recognized by a significant portion of the international community. Hong Kong is an example of a state. A stateless nation, on the other hand, is a nation that does not have a state, such as the Kurds, who are concentrated in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and other countries. Finally, a nationless state is a state that lacks a nation, such as Malta.
Identify the various theories regarding state power and assess the validity of those theories.
Two theories include the Rimland theory and the heartland theory, which oppose one another. The Rimland theory was that Eurasia's rimland, the coastal areas, is the key to controlling the World Island. The heartland theory states that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world. He further proposed that since Eastern Europe controlled access to the Eurasian interior, its ruler would command the vast "heartland" to the east.
Explain the practical examples of electoral geography and how it impacts modern American politics.
Electoral geographers examine how the spatial configuration of electoral districts and the voting patterns that emerge in particular elections that reflect and influence social and political affairs. The US has a system of territorial representation, which sometimes is adjusted and changed by reapportionment. This also leads to majority-minority districts and gerrymandering.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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Chp 5: Race, Ethnicity, Gender, & Sexuality
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Chp 7: Religion
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