How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

347 terms

Praxis II: Music Content Knowledge 0113

Music History and Literature Music Theory Performance Music Learning, K-12 Professional Practices
STUDY
PLAY
Absolute Music
Pure music, not linked to words or descriptive ideas. Opposite of program music.
Alberti Bass
Accompaniment style popular in the classical period. Instead of writing simple chords for the left hand, the composer arranges the same notes in a pattern of broken chords.
Alto Clef
C clef used by the viola. C is on the middle line.
Anacrusis
Pick up bar.
Antiphonal
Alternate singing or playing by different groups.
Arco
Instruction to use the bow after a plucked passage of music.
Arpeggio
Chord whose notes are played one after another. Sometimes it is written as a chord preceded by a wiggly line.
Articulation
Musical shaping and phrasing. Marks include staccato, legato, accent.
Atonal
Without key center
Augmentation
Increasing the note values of a musical theme, usually to twice their value.
Augmented
Made larger.
Bare chord
Chord without a third.
Binary form
Two part form - A B. The first section modulates (usually to the dominant). The second section is often longer than the first and uses similar material.
Blues
Based on a chord pattern using primary chords (I IV V).
C Clefs
Alto and tenor clefs
Cadence
Gives stopping place to breathe. Signals the end of both small and large musical sections.
Perfect Cadence
Cadence: V - I
Plagal Cadence
Cadence: IV -I
Interrupted Cadence
Cadence: V - vi
Imperfect Cadence
Cadence:
I - V
ii - V
IV - V
Canon
Type of counterpoint (polyphony) where one or more voices imitate a leading voice.
Chromatic
Notes that are not in the key of the composition. Romatic period is known as the period of chromaticism.
Coda
Ending section designed to round off a musical composition.
Consonance
Combination of aggreable tones.
Countermelody
Second melody above or below the main melody. Descant is a type of countermelody.
Cross Rhythm
Two conflicting rhythms used at the same time. Also known as polyrhythm.
Development
Modification of motif and themes. The main ways of developing a theme are by imitation, sequence, inversion, fragmentation, augmentation, and diminution.
Diminution
Repeating a theme or motif with notes of smaller value (usually half)
Diminished
Made smaller.
Dissonance
Effect of tension or disturbance made by using discords in music. Jazz uses many colorful dissonant chords.
Dominant
Fifth tone in a major or minor scale.
Extension
Developing a phrase or motif by making it longer.
Fanfare
Musical announcement played on brass instruments before the arrival of an important person. Usually played on trumpets and built from the notes of one major triad.
Figured Bass
Used by composers in the Baroque period. Numbers underneath the bass line told the performer which chords to play. The bass part was called the continuo. Each number represents an interval between the bass and the note to be supplied.
Fragmentation
Breaking of a theme into segments in order to develop it
Glissando
Gliding or sliding from one note to another. Can be shown by a line between notes or by writing the actual notes to be played.
Portamento
Glissando in vocal music
Smear
Glissando in jazz music
Hammer on
Articulation on guitar produced by sliding the finger from one fret to the next up and back.
Harmonic
High, clear, pure sound produced on a string instrument by lightly stopping the string at its halfway point.
Harmony
Sound that results when two or more notes are played at the same time.
Hocket
Breaking of a melody into single notes or very short phrases by using rests. The melody is then shared between different voices.
Homophonic
Music that moves in harmonic blocks (as opposed to the linear way polyphonic music moves)
Imitation
Repetition by one or more different voices of a phrase.
Rhythmic Imitation
Only the rhythm of a passage is imitated, not the melody.
Imitation by Inversion
Phrase is imitated by turning it upsidedown.
Introduction
Bars of music before the main tune begins.
Inversion
Turning upside down. Change of the relative position of an interval, chord, or melody.
Inversions of chords are used to...
Give a more melodic bass part and to give variety to the music.
A melody moves by inversion if...
It moves in contrary motion when repeated. Sometimes the intervals are not exact.
Irregular rhythm
Rhythms that constantly change or are grouped in a different way.
Leading Note
Seventh tone in a major or minor scale
Mediant
Third tone in a major or minor scale
Melody
Series of tones arranged in a rhythmic pattern, often built by repeating and varying a motif.
Passing Notes
Form of decoration; Unessential note that is not part of the harmony. Occurs off the beat.
Accented Passing Note
An unessential note that falls on the beat
Auxiliary Notes
Come between notes of the same pitch, either a note higher or note lower.
Bye-tones
Unessential note that forms part of the harmony
Notes of Anticipation
Come at the end of a passage and anticipate the final chord.
Appoggiaturas
Note that does not form part of the harmony and is approached by a leap and quitted by a step
Microtone
Interval of less than a semitone
Harmonic Minor Scale
Sharpened leading note ascending and descending
Melodic Minor Scale
Sharpened 6 and 7, but reverted to naturals when descending
Natural Minor Scale
Natural Pitch
Dorian Mode
Mode: D-D
Aeolian
Mode: A-A
Phrygian
Mode: E-E
Locrian
Mode: B-B
Lydian
Mode: F-F
Ionian
Mode: C-C
Mixolydian
Mode: G-G
Monophonic
Music with a single melody line and no harmony.
Motif
Smallest unit of musical form. Can be as short as two notes or as long as six. A motif has Clear rhythmic patterns as well as a clear melodic outline.
Ostinato
Short, constantly repeated motif. Usually, but not always in the bass.
Pedal Point
A long held note or series of repeated notes, usually in the bass, above which harmonies constantly change. Tonic and dominant pedals are the most common.
Inverted Pedal
If the pedal is in any part other than the bass.
Pentatonic Scale
Scale consisting of five notes. No semitones. One major third, two minor thirds. All fifths are perfect.
Phrase
Smallest complete unit of musical form containing about as much as can be held in a normal breath. Can be two to eight bars long.
Polyphonic
Music where two or more equally important melodic lines are combined and woven together with rhythmic contrast happening between the voices.
Polytonality
Simultaneous use of two or more keys.
Primary Triads
I, IV, V
Programme Music
Music that attemtps to paint a picture or mood, describe an action, or tell a story. Very popular in the Romantic period.
Pull off
Articulation for guitar produced by sliding the finger from one fret to the next down and back. Similar to a slur.
Pulse
Steady beat that is present in almost every musical composition.
Register
Part of the total pitch range of an instrument that has a distinctive quality.
Repetition
Occurs when a phrase is repeated immediately at exactly the same pitch.
Retrograde
A composition or part of a composition that can be performed backwards as well as forwards.
Rhythmic displacement
Repeating a rhythm in a different part of the bar.
Riff
Continuously repeated musical phrase in jazz music, played over changing harmonies.
Rondo Form
A B A C A. Usually sections B and C are in a different key.
Rubato
Way of playing or singing in which some of the notes are slightly hurried while others are slowed down. Free flowing expressiveness according to the performer.
Semitone
Smallest interval in common use in western music. The interval between one note on the piano and the next.
Major Scale Semitones
Between 3/4 and 7/8
Harmonic Minor Scale Semitones
Between 2/3, 5/6, 7/8
Sequence
Repetition of a musical idea at a higher or lower pitch.
Real Sequence
Exact transposition of each note in a sequence.
Tonal Sequence
Intervals of the first phrase are NOT reproduced exactly.
Harmonic Sequences
Occur in all parts. Fundamental then up an octave then a fifth
Melodic Sequences
Only occur in the melody over an independent bass.
Stretto
Where a composer imitates a passage, but the second part enters before the first part has ended.
Subdominant
Fourth tone in a major/minor scale
Submediant
Sixth tone in a major or minor scale
Supertonic
Second tone in a major/minor scale
MM
Maelzel's Metronome
Tenor Clef
C clef sometimes used by the cello, bassoon, and trombone. C is on the second to top line
Ternary Form
Three part musical form created by repeating the first section without changing. A B A.
Texture
Thick or thin - How many instruments or voices are performing together.
Timbre
Tone color or quality of sound.
Tonality
Another word for key.
Tonic
Key note. Tonic of C major is C. The tonic triad is C E G.
Tonic Minor
Minor key with the same tonic as a major one. C major and C minor.
Unrelated Chord
Chord that is in a different key to the one before it with no notes in common.
Whole Tone Scale
Consists entirely of whole steps.
Instruction on string instruments begins no later than grade
5
General music is required until grade
8
(Elementary/Middle School) Every music course meets at least every other day in periods of at least ____ minutes.
45
JRME
Journal of Research for Music Education
The School Music Program: A New Vision
Provides music educators with a blueprint for music curricula based on the best practices of the past, modified to meet the needs of the future. In addition to K-12 National Standards, it contains prekindergarten standards developed by MENC: The National Association for Music Education, as well as an explanation of their impact on music educators.
National Standards for Music Education: Content 1
1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music
National Standards for Music Education: Content 2
2. Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music
National Standards for Music Education: Content 3
3. Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments
National Standards for Music Education: Content 4
4. Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines
National Standards for Music Education: Content 5
5. Reading and notating music
National Standards for Music Education: Content 6
6. Listening to, analyzing, and describing music
National Standards for Music Education: Content 7
7. Evaluating music and music performances
National Standards for Music Education: Content 8
8. Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts
National Standards for Music Education: Content 9
9. Understanding music in relation to history and culture
MENC
The National Association for Music. World's largest arts education organizations. 1907, MENC worked to ensure every student has access to a well-balanced. Developed National Standards for Arts Education.
ACDA
American Choral Directors Association
AOSA
American Orff-Schulwerk Association
OAKE
Organization of American Kodaly Educators
ASTA
American String Teachers Association
ASCAP
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers
MPA
Music Publishers' Association
MTNA
Music Teachers National Association
NAMM
The International Music Products Association
NASM
National Association of Schools of Music
NSBA
National School Boards Association
National Standards for Arts Education
This volume contains content and achievement standards for music, dance, theatre, and visual arts for grades K-12. Developed by the Consortium of National Arts Education Associations (American Alliance for Theatre & Education, MENC, National Art Education Association, and National Dance Association) under the guidance of the National Committee for Standards in the Arts.
Extrensic Reward
Verbal praise, candy, treats, games, surprises
Intrensic Reward
Child figures out a concept, excels in a skill, feels pride in ability
School Music Program: A New Vision K-4
Sing on pitch and rhythm, steady tempo, ostinatos, rounds, partner songs, improvise simple ostinato accompaniments, improvise short songs, use body and nontraditional sounds to make music, create and arrange music to accompany readings, create short songs, read whole, half, dotted half, quarter, eighth notes, rests in 2/4, 3/2, 4/4 meter, Use system (syllables, numbers, letters) reading simple pitch notation, Navajo, Arabic, Latin American music, Evaluate music,
School Music Program: A New Vision 5-8
Sing with breath control, alone and in small and large ensembles, sing with expression vocal lit. on a difficulty level of 2 including songs from memory, two and three parts, improvise simple harmonic accompaniments, simple rhythmic and melodic variations on given pentatonic melodies and major keys, read whole, hald, quarter, eighth, sixteenths, and dotted notes and rests in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 3/8 and alla breve. SR music with difficulty of 2, recognize jazz, mariachi, gamelan
School Music Program: A New Vision 9-12
Sing with expression and technical accuracy, large and varied repertoire of vocal literature difficulty of 4 on scale of 6, sing 4 parts with and without accompaniment, improvise stylistically appropriate harmonizing parts, improvise in pentatonic, major and minor keys, compose in several distinct styles, evolve criteria for making informed critical evaluations of the quality, compose, arrange, improvise, Baroque, Sub-Saharan, African, Korean, sing, broadway musicals, blues.
Opportunity-To-Learn Standards for Music Instruction: Grades PreK-12
Facilities, Course Offerings, Scheduling, Staffing, Materials, Equipment
Psychomotor Skills
Manual or physical skills (body)
Cognitive Skills
Mental skills (knowledge)
Affective Behaviors
Growth in physical or emotional areas (attitude)
90 Minutes
(Elementary) Student recieves general music instruction each week for at least _____. Excluding time devoted to elective instrumental or choral instruction. Music is woven into the curriculum throughout the school day.
5
(Elementary) Instruction on string instruments begins not later than grade _____.
4
For the first year of instrumental study, students are taught at least part of the time in homogeneous instrumental groupings.
40 & 15
(Elementary) for band, orchestra, and chorus, a library of music is provided that includes at least ____ titles for each type of group. At least ____ titles for each type of group are added each year.
45 minutes
(Middle/Jr. High) Every music course meets at least every other day in periods of at least ____.
8
General music is required of all through grade.
75 & 15
(Middle/Jr. High) A library of small-ensemble music is provided that contains at least ____ titles for various types of ensembles. At least ____ new titles are added each year.
5%
An annual budget is provided for the replacement of school-owned instruments that is equivalent to at least ___ of the current replacement value of hte total inventory of instruments.
The Harry Fox Agency
A US music publisher for licensing, collecting, and distributing music, the Harry Fox Ageney (HFA) seeks to increase the value and integrity of the music rights industry by providing such services as the issuance of mechanical licenses and the collection and distribution of mechanical royalties.
Antiquity
Eras: 500AD-500BC
Medieval
Eras: 500-1400
Renaissance
Eras: 1400-1600
Baroque
Eras: 1600-1750
Classical
Eras: 1750-1820
Romantic
Eras: 1820-1900
20th century
Eras: 1900-2000
Aria
solo vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment
Bouree
French baroque dance in fast duple meter
Cantata
Music composition using sacred texts(baroque)
Chanson
A french polyphonic song (late middle ages & renaissance)
Chorale
Protestant hymn melody (baroque)
Choral prelude
composition for an organ (baroque)
Concerto
composition for an orchestra & 1 or more solo instrument (classical period)
Divertimento
chamber music(classical period)
Etude
a study piece composition for development part of technique
Fanfare
loud brass instruments (esp. trumpets)
Fugue
imitative polyphonic composition, themes repeat
Gavotte
french peasant dance (baroque)
Gigue
popular baroque dance
Madrigal
A secular song for 2 or 3 unaccompanied voices (renaissance)
Motet
polyphonic composition sacred text w/ out accompaniment (renaissance)
Opera
A musical dramatic work
Organum
plain chant, note against note counterpoint (medieval)
Passacaglia
continuous variations on ground bass, similar to chaconne (baroque)
Recitative
spoken song (romantic)
Rondeau
french lyrical poem (renaissance)
Sarabande
most popular baroque instrumental dance
Sonata
composition for 1 or more solo instruments, one of which is usually a keyboard instrument, usually consisting of of 3 or 4 independent movements varying in key, mood, and tempo
string quartet
2 violins, viola, & a cello (classical)
Suite
An instrumental composition consisting of a series of varying movements or pieces
symphonic poem
orchestral form (ex. Lizst) (romantic)
symphony
an extended piece in 3 or more movements for a symphony orchestra
Toccata
keyboard piece, free in form, that displays dexterity (baroque)
Martele'
(bowing technique) hammered stroke with a crisp (upsidedown teardrop symbol)
De'tache'
(bowing technique) one bow per note (staple and V symbols)
Ricochet
(bowing technique) bouncing bow quickly (staccato)
Loure'
(bowing technique) seperate slurred notes used in slow tempos
Harmonic Series
Also known as overtones series: 8va-5-4
During the 18th & 19th centuries involved improvisation as part of the performance
Cadenza
Rim shot
(drumming technique) one loud hit
Flam
(drumming technique) 1 beat preceeding 1 beat (ex. ba-dop)
Drag
(drumming technique)2 beats preceeding 1 beat (ex. ba/da-bop)
Paradiddle
(drumming technique)par-a-di-dle
Classical
Refined strings
Medieval
monophonic, plain chant
Renaissance
polyphonic, no instruments, motet &madrigal
Baroque
small orchestras w/ basso continuo, keyboards
Classical
simple melodies, strings dominate, alberti bass
Bebop(Jazz)
Complex jazz style developed in the 1940's. Also bop. A jazz style which developed in the 1940's characterized by very fast or very slow tempos with improvised lines of eighth notes, irregular accents, and an extended harmony. The patterns often ended with an abrupt two-note figure that sounded like "be-bop".
Blues
American form of folk music related to jazz. It is based on a simple, repetitive, poetic-musical structure.
Dixeland(Jazz)
(1917-1920) An early style of jazz originating in the early 20th century in New Orleans with a simple, cheerful character.
Gospel
(late 19th century) stands for the type of religious popular song that succeeded the SPIRITUAL
Motown
is the term that refers to the style of music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the late 1960's. The Sound was a mixture of several popular musical styles and can be considered a form of soul music.
Ragtime(jazz)
An American style of music characterized by "ragged" or syncopated rhythms. It was popular between the 1890's and the 1910's. (Scott Joplin)
Rap
An American style of rhythmic chanting consisting of improvised rhymes performed to rhythmic accompaniment.
Rhythm & Blues
An American pop music style popular between the 1940's and 1960's.played by an ensemble, generally with a lead vocalist or instrumentalist, a rhythm section, and an ensemble of voices, wind instruments, or guitar.
Swing
American style of jazz music originating in the 1930's. characterized by "big band" instrumentation, a greater emphasis on solo passages, and a 4/4 tempo with an almost even emphasis on each beat of the measure.
KV - Köchel Verzeichnis or Köchel Catalog
What is the name of the numbering scheme used to categorize mozarts wk?
Abbreviated as "Op." (work) or "Opp." (works)
A term used to classify a composition in relation to the composer's other compositions.
BWV
Abbreviation for Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, used to catalogue the compositions of J. S. Bach.
Famous performers of the swing era
Duke Ellington & Benny Goodman
What instrument does Wynton Marsalis play?
trumpet
What instrument does Benny goodman play?
Clarinet
Famous drum soloist?
Gene Krupa
What instrument does Louis Armstrong Play?
trumpet
What instrument does John Coltrane Play?
saxophone
What instrument does thelonious monk play?
piano
Bebop jazz artist that played the trumpet, piano, and trombone
Dizzy Gillespie
1st scale degree
Ionian (I)
2nd scale degree
Dorian (ii)
3rd scale degree
phrygian (iii)
4th scale degree
Lydian (IV)
5th scale degree
Mixolydian (V)
6th scale degree
Aeolian (vi)
7th Scale degree
Locrian (vii)
Interrupted/Deceptive Cadence
Cadence: V-?
Perfect/Authentic Cadence
Cadence: V-I
Plagal Cadence
Cadence: IV-I
Imperfect/Half Cadence
Cadence: ends on V
German Augmented sixth
augmented 6+ minor3
Italian Augmented Sixth
augmented 6+ Major3
French Augmented sixth
augmented 6+ M2
Accelerando
Gradually accelerating or getting faster
Anacrusis
An Upbeat or a pickup note(s); a term used for unstressed notes at the beginning of a phrase of music.
Augmentation
Statement of a melody in longer note values, often twice as slow as the original.
Diminution
A Renaissance and Baroque ornamentation which consists of the restatement of a melody in which the note values are shortened, usually by half.
Hemiola
In early music, this term meant the ratio of 3:2, employed musically in two senses: the ratio of the perfect fifth, whose musical value is 3:2, and the rhythmic relation of three notes in the time of two, i.e., the triplet. In the Baroque era hemiola was used in dance music in the sense that it denoted the articulation of two measures of triple meter as if they were three measures of duple meter.
Hocket
A Medieval practice of composition in which two voices would move in such a manner that one would be still while the other moved and vice-versa. Sometimes this was achieved by taking a single melody and breaking it into short, one or two note phrases, and dividing the phrases between the two voices so that a quick back-and-forth movement of the melody would be heard
syncopation
Deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse of a composition by means of a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an off-beat.
monophony
Music that is written for only one voice or part
polyphony
A style of composition that has many voices, each with its own melody, thus creating a rich texture of sound.
homophony
there is a distinct melody with accompanying harmony, but all move in the same rhythmic pattern.
heterophony
The practice of two or more musicians simultaneously performing slightly different versions of the same melody.
marcato
marked, emphatic
rubato
perform freely
poco a poco
little by little
alla breve
A tempo marking indicating a quick duple meter 2/2
adagio
slow
andante
walking tempo
allegro
fast
vivace
very fast
rallentando
slowing down
Ritenuto
held back & slowing down
Timbre
The quality of a sound; that component of a tone that causes different instruments (for example a guitar and a violin) to sound different from each other while they are both playing the same note.
retrograde
This occurs when in a melodic line is performed backwards.
(k-12) vocal rage k-4
about an octave starting from middle C
What is the natural minor scale mode?
Aeolian
makes up the pentatonic scale
1,2,3,5,6 (C,D,E,G,A)
Tremolo
refers to a repeating pitch or pattern that is quick & continuous
Trill
an ornamentation completed by rapid moving between 2 pitches that are sequential within the key of the particular piece
Basses can sing in the range of...
Range: D2-C4 or middle C
Baritones can sing in the range of ..
Range: G2- F4
Tenors can sing in the range of ..
Range: B2- G4
Contraltos can sing in the range of ..
Range: D3-D5
Mezzo sopranos can sing in the range of..
Range: A3-F5
Sopranos can sing in the range of ...
Range: C4-C6 or high C
The registers of the voice
chest, middle, and head
steps of conducting
1. preparation
2. ictus
3. rebound
4. Penultimate beat placing
5. Final beat placing
attack
indicated by the speed of the acceleration and the force of the ictus
ictus
the pt of the rebound
dynamics
indicated by the size of the preparation
preparation
is the space between the ictus of one beat and the ictus of the next
quality
is indicated by the shape of the preparation
ostinato
What is the term for a musical expression repeated several times?
caesura
break or interruption in music (railroad track symbol)
basso profundo
the lowest bass voice
samba
What is the name of the Brazilian dance that is slightly faster than the tango?
popular cuban music
cha cha & mambo
What is the musical term for the simultaneous performance of variations on the same melody?
heterophony
What is the term for a decorative note which is printed but not considered as part of the rhythm?
grace note
spinto
a term describing a lyric voice (soprano/ tenor)
rondo
Which form of music consists of a recurring theme alternating with contrasting material?
There are sixty beats per minute.
A tempo of sixty indicates what?
psychomotor
manual or physical skills(skills)
cognitive
mental skills(knowledge)
affective behaviors
growth in physical or emotional areas(attitude)
tessitura
the range of an instrument
The K-12 National Standards
1. Content Standard: Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music
2. Content Standard: Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music
3. Content Standard: Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments
4. Content Standard: Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines
5. Content Standard: Reading and notating music
6. Content Standard: Listening to, analyzing, and describing music
7. Content Standard: Evaluating music and music performances
8. Content Standard: Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts
9. Content Standard: Understanding music in relation to history and culture
(elem.)Instruction on string instruments begins not later than grade ___, and instruction on wind and percussion instruments begins not later than grade 5. For the first year of instrumental study, students are taught at least part of the time in homogeneous instrumental groupings.
4
1st Valve
Valve: 1 full step
2nd valve
Valve: 1/2 step
3rd valve
Valve: 1&1/2 steps
4th valve
Valve: 2 1/2 steps
Lionel Hampton was a famous jazz artist that played what instrument?
vibraphone
(music learning k-12)
Comprehensive musicianship
Comprehensive musicianship emphasizes the encouragement of students to function in the various roles of performer, listener, and composer-improviser
(music learning k-12)
How do beginner woodwind players often play
Beginning woodwind players often play with a closed throat and oral cavity to compensate for inadequate breath support.
(music learning k-12)
Most appropriate sequence for teaching a musical concept
The most appropriate sequence for teaching a musical concept in a general music class is: preparation
presentation
practice
extension
(music learning k-12)
How often does music class meet in middle and high school
Every music course meets at least every other day for at least 45 minutes in middle and high school.
(music learning k-12)
Elementary music
For band, orchestra, and chorus, a library of music is provided that includes at least 40 titles for each type of group. At least 15 titles for each type of group are added each year.
(music learning k-12)
Middle school
General music is required of all students through grade 8.
(music learning k-12)
Middle and high school music
A library of small-ensemble music is provided that contains at least 75 titles of various types of ensembles. At least 15 new titles are added each year.
(music learning k-12)
Budget
An annual budget is provided for the replacement of school-owned instruments that is equivalent to at least 5% of the current replacement value of the total inventory of instruments.
(music learning k-12)
Peter and the Wolf
Peter and the Wolf is a piece most appropriate for introducing the instruments of the orchestra to elementary general music students.
(music learning k-12)
The K-12 National Standards
The K-12 National Standards
1)Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music.
2)Performing an on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music.
3)Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments.
4)Composing and arranging music within specific guidelines.
5)Reading and notating music.
6)Listening to, analyzing, and describing music.
7)Evaluating music and music performances. 8)Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts.
9)Understanding music in relation to history and culture.
(music learning k-12)
How long should elementary students receive music instruction
In elementary school every student receives general music instruction each week for at least 90 minutes, excluding time devoted to elective instrumental or choral instruction.
Music is woven into the curriculum throughout the school day.
(music learning k-12)
Instruction on string
wind, and percussion instruments, Instruction on string instruments begins not later than grade 4, and instruction on wind and percussion instruments no later than grade 5. For the 1st year of instrumental study, students are taught at least part of the time in homogeneous instrumental groupings.
(music learning k-12)
Alexander technique
Alexander technique has a long history of helping instrumentalists and singers to perform with less stress and likelihood of injury. Through this 100 year old method, students learn how to identify and change patterns that lead to aches pains, shallow breathing and performance anxiety.
(music learning k-12)
K-4 vocal range
K-4 vocal range is about an octave starting with middle C
(music learning k-12)
Music sequencing and its effect on music education
Music sequencing is similar to linguistic structuring as it relates to the audience member: patterns of melody, harmony, and rhythm work together better with appropriately defined tone, key, and chord structures. Infants are able to approximate a tone and young children can reproduce short or limited contours with some discrepancy in pitch. Early childhood musical education provides opportunities for children to learn to produce pitches accurately and distinguish between scale and key structure.
(music learning k-12)
Johann Amos Comenius
Johann Amos Comenius believed that the education of children should begin immediately so that the child could learn about faith, cognizance of moral actions, and familiarity with arts and language.
Comenius felt that music education was intinctual for children who first learn to make sound through vocalizations.
(music learning k-12)
Acculturation of Preparatory Audiation
Acculturation of preparatory audiation as the readiness period involves absorption, random response, and purposeful response in which children learn from the sounds and music heard around them. Absorption lasts the 1st 18 months and includes listening. The second stage, random response, between 1-3 years involves participation. Purposeful response 18 mo - 3 years child can attempt to contribute to the music.
(music learning k-12)
What is the music educator's role
Educators are responsible for making music a positive influence on students. All teachers should seek out ways to prepare for curriculum planning and designing instructions that are appropriate for the child's particular education level. Music combines with all developmental, cognitive, language, physical, emotional, and social arenas of education and makes the music educator one of the most fundamental of teacher. Music educators should be able to guide children in their musical experiences and encourage their progress as it occurs.
(music learning k-12)
Working with rhythm instruments in the classroom
Rhythm instruments such as shakers, cowbells, drums, and tambourines are the easiest to work with when instructing children about rhythm, beat, and tempo since they are small, and children can easily be taught to use them correctly.  Children should be introduced to these instruments and how they work to produce sound before being taught simple melodies.  Once students are familiar, they can be instructed to incorporate those sounds in their exercises.
(music learning k-12)
Involvement of parents
Parents should always be encouraged to become more active in their child's education and musical development. Music educators should make an effort to include parents in discussions of instruments or musical practice. Parents are teachers first and a full support from them will help the child learn the importance of education. Music educators should always seek out ways to keep parents involved, such as through band support programs or fund-raising.
(music learning k-12)
Sound exploration areas
Young children need a place to experiment with musical instruments and sounds that is separated from other groups that may be involved in more directed study. Children should be free to work with instruments such as the bells, shakers, claves, drums, tambourines, and castanets as loudly as the child chooses. All sound exploration should be hands on.
(music learning k-12)
How should music educators introduce music instruments
The music educator should give instruction on each instrument, how to use the instrument, and then allow the child to replicate that instruction and then to improvise. Music educators should respond positively to a student's efforts.
(music learning k-12)
Why is singing and chanting important with young children
Rhythmic songs and chants are important for children to understand the combination of sounds and beats and apply the process to their own sensory perceptions. When music educators participate in the singing or chanting, they can interact with the children, and show them how much fun moving to music and creating music can be for all ages. Music educators can teach songs in small segments, through repetition, or through example.
(music learning k-12)
Creative and synchronized movement
Movements that are associated with music and performed as dances or exercise by young children are classified as either creative movement or synchronized movement. Creative movement gives children freer expression and allows them to improvise and enjoy the act itself. Synchronized movement follows an established routine and is choreographed to the rhythm and beat of the selected music. Creative movement allows children to freely express themselves to song, while synchronized movement helps children work as a group and realize the importance of teamwork.
(music learning k-12)
Why music educators should model movements and their role in teaching creative movement
Children will often watch the movements of those around them. Music educators can show students how to do a particular movement to a song, and then let the children copy what they have seen. Any type of movement should be at the child's developmental level. Music educators can show children how to move faster or slower through music. They can also be introduced to dynamics with loud marching or tiptoeing. Teachers can teach about changes in phrasing by changing direction.
(music learning k-12)
Creative movement
Creative movement involves a child's interpretation of the song without paying attention to the beat. Children should be familiar with walking, marching, running, galloping, dancing, clapping, sliding, jumping, and hopping to music.
(music learning k-12)
Synchronized movement
By following a pre-set order of movements to music, children are able to begin to understand a connection between feeling and hearing the music. Children can later apply this connection and develop a steady beat or pulse. There are four stages for young children's understanding the beat of music. 1)Unable to respond to the beat.
2)Responds with too much.
3)Narrow down response to the beat.
4)Able to clap or step to the beat.
Using props during synchronized movement helps children to focus on the movements as they relate to the music and create the movements with greater confidence. (ex. scarves, streamers, ribbons, parachute)
(music learning k-12)
Software and Materials for the high school classroom
Aside from the computer centers, the technological music classroom for high school should contain at least different software programs that deal with listening, analyzing, reading, and describing various types of music. Creation, improvisation, and composition software should be available. Students should be encouraged to utilize the technology for practice and performance, while music educators can access different programs for grading, instrument inventory, etc... Other software or internet (with supervision) for research.
(music learning k-12)
Perceptive listening
Music is best appreciated by listeners who are attentive, and music educators can help students learn how to listen. Perceptive listening allows students not only to hear the notes but to understand the structure and movement of the phrasing.
(music learning k-12)
How can beat rhythm, and tempo be explored?
Rhythm is the pattern of long and short sounds. Music educators can explore beat by clapping each syllable of a simple song. Beat is the pulse of the music which may speed up or slow down during the course of the music. Music educators should have students practice grouping beats together. Tempo is the speed of the music. Music education should help students learn the distinction between slow, moderate, and fast tempos by speeding or slowing down the music.
Saxophone
Charlie Parker
Trumpet
Louis Armstrong
clarinet
Benny Goodman
Vibraphone
Lionel Hampton
Piano
Thelonious Monk
Saxophone (Clarinet)
John Coltrane
Trumpet
Wynton Marsalis
Drum
Gene Krupa
Bass
Charlie Mingus
Trumpet
Miles Davis
Piano
Duke Ellington
Piano
Count Basie
Drums
Max Roach
Piano
Art Tatum
Classes
Tonic I,
Supertonic II,
Mediant III,
Subdominant IV,
Dominant V,
Submediant VI,
Leading Tone VII