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Ch. 12 Biological Anthropology
Terms in this set (95)
One of the tools of modern humans in the Americas was the ______.
Folsom fluted point.
When did modern humans migrate into North America?
The Hobbit skeleton found on the Indonesian island of Flores has been interpreted as a new species based on what characteristic?
The morphology of the wrist bones.
Fossils found in a cave at Gran Dolina, Spain, show evidence of _______.
A valid critique of the Out-Of-Africa model of human evolution based on recent research is that ___________.
There was gene flow between Neanderthals and modern H. sapiens.
A valid critique of the Multiregional Continuity model of the origin of modern humans can be found in the fossil record, which shows that modern variation originated in ______ based on _______.
Africa, Herto skeleton
Your roommate hears that mtDNA analysis found two dozen base pairs were different between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans, indicating that we are not related to Neanderthals. Your roommate asks you if this is true, and you reply that......
The mtDNA analysis is true but testing of nuclear DNA has found some similarities between Neanderthals and modern humans.
The wear pattern on the teeth of Shanidar 1 Neanderthal indicates what?
That he used his teeth like a third hand.
Which tool indicates that H. sapiens began eating a new type of food?
Neanderthal remains from Shanidar cave in northern Iraw provide the first evidence of what?
Care for the injured.
The Assimilation model of the origin of modern humans states that _______.
Modern humans evolved in Africa and spread to Europe and Asia, where they interbred with Neanderthals.
How many years ago did modern H. sapiens begin creating art?
The Out-Of-Africa model of modern human origins states that modern humans _________.
spread from Africa and replaced all other populations with NO gene flow.
How did modern humans likely migrate to the Americas?
Via walking across the Bering land bridge.
What characteristics are not found in modern European men?
A robust face and jaws.
The Multiregional Continuity model of the origin of modern humans states what?
Gene flow is the key to evolution, turning archaic H. sapiens into modern humans in various parts of the world.
The earliest modern humans in Australia, dating to 40,000 ya, were found where?
Lake Mungo, Australia
How many years ago were the earliest modern humans found in Australia?
During your internship with the Medical Examiner's office, you observe the medical examiner to attempt to identify an unknown individual based on skeletal remains. The medical examiner asserts confidently that the deceased was of Asian or Native American ancestry. How does she know this, based only on the skeleton?
The individual has shovel-shaped incisors, a heritable trait often found in East Asians and their descendants.
What is an occipital bun?
a cranial feature of Neanderthals in which the occipital bone projects substantially from the skull's posterior.
How are archaic H. sapiens different from modern H. sapiens?
-longer, lower skull
-a bigger and more projecting face
-wider nasal aperture
-more projecting occipital bone (occipital bun)
-postranial bones are thicker than modern people's
How do the Skhul 5 (Israel) and Herto skull (Ethiopia) share archaic and modern features?
Skhul 5 has some archaic features, which include a projecting face and pronounced browridges, as well as modern features, such as a distinctive chin and no occipital bun. The Herto skulls also have a combination of archaic and modern features, although the modern features dominate over the archaic ones.
Describe the Out-of-Africa hypothesis.
Modern H. sapiens first evolved in Africa and then spread to Asia and Europe, replacing the indigenous archaic H. sapiens spopulations living on these two continents. NO GENE FLOW.
Describe the Multiregional hypothesis.
H. erectus evolved into modern H. sapiens in various geographci regions. African archaic H. sapiens gave rise to African modern H. sapiens, Asian archaic H. sapiens gave rise to Asian modern H. sapiens, and European archaic H. sapiens gave rise to European modern H. sapiens. GENE FLOW = IMPORTANT.
How long ago did the earliest forms of H. sapiens emerge?
around 350,000 ya
Describe the characteristics of the skeleton found in the Kabwe lead mine in Zambia, Africa.
-facial bones and muscle attachment areas on back of neck are quite small compared to H. erectus in Africa
-both the Zambian and European skulls have erectus-like characteristics (large face, large browridges, and thick cranial bones)
Some of the best-known fossils representing early archaic H. sapiens are from where in Asia?
Ngandong site, on the island of Java in Indonesia
Describe the characteristics of the Ngandong 11 skull.
-skull is long and low
-browridge is massive (not as large as H. erectus)
-cranium is large and robust
What do some people divide the early archaic H. sapiens into?
Homo heidelbergensis and/or Homo antecessor
Describe the anatomical characteristics of early archaic H. sapiens.
-overall larger brains, avg cranial capacity 1,200 cc
-increase in body and brain size relative to body size
-sloping forehead, low skull (but higher than erectus)
-face is large and prognathic
-back teeth smaller, some have larger front teeth
Where is one of the most significant fossils for each archaic H. sapiens and for all of human evolution from?
the Sime de los Huesos cave site in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain.
What is so significant about the Atapuerca 5 skull?
It is one of the few instances ever in which a fossilized individual's skull (including the mandible) was found in direct association with the postcranial skeleton.
Describe the characteristics of the Atapuerca 5 skull.
-pronounced facial projection
-nasal aperture is quite wide
What is the reason for skulls having smaller front teeth?
It is evidence that these hominids used their front teeth as a tool, perhaps as a kind of third hand for gripping materials.
When did early archaic H. sapiens exist?
What are some Neanderthal characteristics>
-wide nasal apertures
-a projecting face
-an occipital bun
-a long, low skull
-large front teeth
-a wide, stocky body
What is so significant about the Kebara Neanderthal remains found in Kebara, Israel (Asia)?
Even without a cranium and legs, this is one of the most complete Neanderthal skeletons found to date. The Kebara Neanderthals date to about 60,000 ya.
What kind of anatomical characteristics do the Amud and Tabun skulls (Asia) possess that make them similar to the contemporary populations of late archaic H. sapiens in Europe?
-eye orbits are small and round
-nasal openings are large and wide
-faces project forward
-skulls also share modern characteristics: lack of occipital bun and the presence of relatively small teeth
What is so significant about the Shanidar 1 skeleton?
This individual's life is written in his bones. A fracture on his upper face may have been severe enougb to cause blindness. Severe arthritis in his feet may have resulted from the constant stresses of traversing difficult, mountainous terrain. His upper incisors are severely worn, probably from his use of the front teeth as a tool for grasping and holding objects. This skeleton tells a life story of injury owing to accidents and violence.
What did the evidence found with the Neanderthal skeletons at the Shanidar Cave in Iraq reveal about Neanderthals?
That they intentionally buried their dead and possibly performed some type of burial ceremony.
Describe characteristics of the Amud Neanderthal found in Asia.
The large brain size (1,740 cc) suggests that Neanderthals' intelligence was on par with modern H. sapiens'. The exceptionally large cranial capacity of the Amud Neanderthal indicates that this hominid's brain was at least as large as a modern humans.'
Describe the characteristics of the Krapina 3 skull that was recovered in Croatia, dating back to 130,000 ya.
TYPICAL NEANDERTHAL CHARACTERISTICS:
-round eye orbits
-wide space between eye orbits
-wide nasal aperture
-protruding midfacial region
-front teeth are very large
What do the location and pattern of cutmarks on the Krapina Neanderthal bones tells us?
These strategically placed cutmarks appear on human and animal bones and strongly suggest that these people at animal AND human tissue (CANNIBALISM).
Besides the Krapina Neanderthals, name other sites where evidence of cannibalism has been found.
the Moula-Guercy cave in southeastern France, Gran Dolina cave in Spain.
Describe the anatomical characteristics of early archaic H. sapiens.
-increase in cranial capacity
-overall larger brains
-low skull (higher than H. erectus)
-large and prognathic face
-smaller back teeth, some have larger front teeth
-more verticalness present in skull
Descibe the anatomical characteristics of later archaic H. sapiens.
-avg cranial capacity 1,500 cc
-large nasal aperture
-large infraorbital foramina
-stocky build; short limbs
Describe the anatomical characteristics of modern H. sapiens.
-avg brain size 1,500 cc
-presence of chin
-reduced robusticity in limbs, teeth, and browridges
-lack of occipital bun
Describe how a large nose is an adaptation to the cold.
Neanderthal fossils indicate that these people had hugh noses. One of the nose's important functions is to transform ambient air- the air breathed in from the environment- into warm, humid air. Large noses have more internal surface area, thus providing an improved means of warming and moistening the cold, dry air that Neanderthals breathed regularly. The projecting nose typical of Neanderthals placed more distance between the cold external environment and the brain, which is temperature sensitive. These attributes are not uniquely Neanderthal.
How is the infraorbital foramina an adaptation to the cold?
The infraorbital foramina- the small holes in the facial bones beneath the eye orbits- are larger in European Neanderthals than in modern people. The foramina's increased size is due to the blood vessels that tracked through them having been quite large. The larger blood vessels may have allowed greater blood flow to the face, preventing exposed facial surfaces from freezing.
How was the shape and size of the Neanderthals' bodies an adaptation to the cold?
Compared with modern humans, European Neanderthals were stocky- the body was short, wide, and deep. Neanderthals' limbs were shorter than earlier or later humans'. This combination- stocky trunk and short limbs- is predicted by Bergmann's and Allen's rules. Animals that live in cold climats are larger than animals that live in hot climates. The larger body trunk reduces the amount of surface area relative to the body size, which helps promote heat retention. Animals that live in cold climates have shorter limbs than animals that live in hot climates.
What is the Multiregional model based on?
What is the Assimilation Model?
Based on the idea that H. sapiens and Neanderthals interbred to produce viable offspring.
What is the Mousterian culture?
The stone tool culture in which Neanderthals produced tools using the Levallois technique, during the Middle Paleolithic time period.
What is the Levallois technique?
The Levallois technique is a distinctive method of stone tool production used during the Middle Paleolithic, in which the core was prepared and flakes removed from the surface before the final tool was detached from the core.
How can a Neanderthal diet be analyzed?
Measures of stable isotopes of both carbon and nitrogen can be used to determine the relative amounts of different kinds of foods consumed. Herbivores generally have isotope values than carnivores. Neanderthals' isotope levels are close to those of known carnivores, indicating that Neanderthals ate plenty of meat.
What evidence indicates that Neanderthals buried their dead?
The placement and positioning of the body, the posutres, etc. Pits seemed prepared.
What evidence suggests that Neanderthals could speak?
Though they could not express the full range of sounds necessary for articulate speech (since their vocal tract resembled a modern newborn infant's vocal tract), they could make sounds because they had the hyoid bone, which was identical to that of a modern humans'. Evidence- the Kebara Neanderthals could speak and they possessed this hyoid bone.
What two sets of skeletons suggest that Neanderthals buried their dead?
Shanidar skeletons (Iraq) and La Chapelle-aux-Saints skeleton (France).
The remains from Herto in Ethiopia's Middle Awash River Valey reveal characteristics that are similar to modern humans'. What are these characteristics? This skeleton's remains date back to 160,000.
-relatively tall cranium
-a nonprojecting face
Skulls from two different locations in southern Africa provide important information about early modern H. sapiens that date to after 100,000 ya. Where were the remains found and what characteristics did they have?
Anthropologists looked at fragmentary remains from Klasies River Mouth Cave and documented the presence of a chin, a distinctively modern characteristi that dates to at least 90,000 ya. A nearly complete skull from Hofmeyr (36,000 ya) bears a striking resemblance to Pleistocene modern Europeans.
The fact that Skhul 5 dates to before the Amud fossils (Asia) indicates what?
That modern humans lived in the region before Neanderthals.
What is important about the three skulls found at the Upper Cave at Zhoukoudian, China that date back to 29,000-24,000 ya?
The skulls are robust compared to living Asians', but the facial flatness is characteristic of native eastern Asians today. Similarly, the early modern people from Minatogawa (Okinawa) (18,000ya) are gracile, but retain thick cranial bones and large browridges.
The earliest modern H. sapiens in Europe are from where?
Pestera cu Oase, Romania (35,000 ya)
The Dolni Vestonice skulls retain a few Neanderthal characteristics and are early modern H. sapiens on what continent?
Describe the characteristics of the skeletons found in a rockshelter in Cro-Magnon, France.
These remains are anatomically modern, with a number of features distinct from Neanderthals', including a high, vertical forehead, flat browridges, a much narrower nasal aperture, and an overall gracile skull. Skull appears to be very tiny and the face seems to be squished downward.
What may have caused the decrease in the height of early modern people?
1) a decrease in quality of nutrition
2) resource stress
During the last 20,000 years of the Pleistocene, food procurement intensified- more effort was put into acquiring and processing food for the same amount of caloric intake as before. This change may have occurred because human population size was increasing, placing increased pressure on food resources. An outcome of this change was a global increase in the range of foods eaten.
The development of fishing and the use of aquatic resources was part of a larger package of behaviors associated with modern humans, including what?
1) more specialized kinds of hunting
2) wider employment of raw materials for producing tools
3) advanced lade technology
The latest archaic H. sapiens, the Neanderthals, survived until _______ ya.
at least 32,000 ya
What does the overlap in dates between Neanderthals and early modern humans indicate?
That the two groups coexisted in eastern Europe for at least several thousand years. This argues AGAINST the Multiregional model, which sees archaic H. sapiens as having evolved locally into modern H. sapiens.
What piece of evidence argues against the Out-Of-Africa model?
That the earliest modern H. sapiens had clear Neanderthal features (such as the occipital bun) strongly suggests interbreeding between Neanderthals and early modern people. This argues against the Out-Of-Africa model, which sees no gene flow between Neanderthals and early modern humans.
What do the comparisons of mtDNA from more than a dozen Neanderthal skeletons with that of early modern humans and living humans show?
They show similarity among Neanderthals and dissimilarity between Neanderthals and modern humans. 27 mtDNA base pair difference between Neanderthals and living humans. Living human populations, on the other hand, have an average of just 8 base pair differences among them.
What do the genetic differences between Neanderthals and humans support?
The hypothesis that no gene flow occurred between Neanderthals and modern humans and, more importantly, that Neanderthals contributed NONE of their genetic material to the modern human gene pool. However, mtDNA is a tiny part of the human genome and reflects only a small fraction of the genetic code.
In a breakthrough study done by Swedish geneticist Svante Paabo, a new technology applied to the analysis of three female Neanderthal bones from Vindija Cave has provided the sequence of 4 billion base pairs representing the Neanderthal genome. Using high-throughput DNA sequencing, what results were found?
Eurasians and Neanderthals share between 1% and 4% of their nuclear DNA, an indication of a small but significant admixture. Given that Africans share no nuclear DNA with Neanderthals, the admixture occurred between early modern Europeans and Neanderthals after early modern people left Africa. People living today outside of Africa have DNA that likely originated from Neanderthals. In that sene, Neanderthals are still with us!
Give two explanations for Africa's greater genetic diversity, specifically of the sub-Saharan African populations.
1) a population or group of populations that has been around for a long time will have accumulated more mutations- hence, greater variation- than a population or group of populations that has been around a short time. therefore, Africa's greater genetic diverseity may mean that modern people have existed longer there than in Asia or Europe.
2) Population size tremendously influences genetic diversity. Because in the remote past Africa had a significantly larger breeding population size than other continents did, Africa now has greater genetic diversity.
Do the fossil record or genetic record support the Out-Of-Africa model or the Multiregional Continuity model?
The fossil record and genetic record indicate that neither the Out-Of-Africa model nor the Multiregional model adequately explains modern humans' origins. The Out-Of-Africa model correctly accounts for the origin of modern human variation, but it incorrectly asserts that no gene flow occured between Neanderthals and modern H. sapiens. The Multiregional model is correct about gene flow and the notion that Neanderthals have contributed to modern H. sapiens' gene pool, but it is not correct about H. sapiens' regional development.
What did the Neanderthals' disappearance after 30,000 ya result from if it didn't result from extinction?
Their disappearance resulted from their assimilation by much larger, more genetically diverse populations of modern humans migrating into Europe from Africa during the late Pleistocene. Neanderthals contributed to the gene pool of today's European and European-descended populations, leaving their genetic, behavioral, and adaptive legacy with modern humans in Europe and in Asia.
According to the Out-Of-Africa model, when did modern humans spread from Africa to Europe?
After 50,000 ya
What is the biological foundation for modern H. sapiens living outside of Africa today?
The admixture between modern H. sapiens and late archaic H. sapiens (Neanderthals).
What motivated the early modern people to move?
1) population increase
2) disappearance of food resources
3) increased competition with neighbors for remaining resources
4) climate deterioration
Where is the earliest archaeological evidence of humans in Australia?
Lake Mungo (40,000 ya)
Where was the "Hobbit" found?
In Liang Bua Cave on the Indonesian island of Flores.
Describe the unique characteristics of the "Hobbit."
-extremely tiny brain (400 cc)- like a chimpanzee's
-3.5 feet tall (very short)
Why was the Hobbit considered to be a new species, known as Homo floresiensis?
Because of its wrist bones.
A condition in which the cranium is abnormally small and the brain is underdeveloped.
Why did some people think the "Hobbit" was not a new species?
Some people argued it was not part of a different species but a modern human who suffered from microcephaly or some other genetic or developmental abnormality. They point out that numerous cranial features of H. floresiensis are within the modern range of variation seen in living populations from the larger region. In addition, some of the creature's anatomical characteristics (such as small or absent chin and rotated premolars) resemble those of populations now living in the immediate region.
What anatomical characteristic do Asians and Native Americans share?
Shovel-shaped incisors. (incisor's posterior aspect has varying degrees of concavity).
What evidence suggests that certain haplogroups were present in Asians who migrated to the Americas?
Native Americans share haplogroups with northeastern Asians. The presence of all four groups throughout the Americas and the strong similarity of the nucleotide sequences suggests that they share a common ancestry in a single founding population that arrived in the Americas from Asia via one migration.
Who were the Paleoindians?
They were the earliest hominid inhabitants of the Americas; they likely migrated from Asia and are associated with the Clovis and Folsom stone tool cultures in North America and comparable tools in South America.
When did the migration to N. America occur?
What is the name that refers to the earliest Native American culture of North America?
What are Paleoindians known for?
Stone artifacts, especially large spear points associated with the Clovis and later Folsom cultures. The Paleoindians hunted various animals, but they are best known for hunting megafauna (large game animals).
How did the Paleoindians differ from recent Native Americans?
The Paleoindians' skulls were relatively long and narrow, and their faces were robust, with large attachment areas for the mastication muscles. In contrast, many living Native Americans have short, round skulls with gracile faces.
How have the anatomical differences between Paleoindians and Native Americans been interpreted?
They have been interpreted to mean either that the Paleoindians are not the living Native Americans' ancestors or that the Paleoindians are the living Native Americans' ancestors but cranial morphology has changed due to evolutionary forces and other processes over the last 10,000 years in the Americas. The more likely scenario is that the cranial morphology evolved and was shaped by later changes in use of the face and of the jaws. If so, then the Paleoindians are the ancestors of living Native Americans.
Who does the Kennewick Man represent?
How many years ago did the H. florensiensis species come about?
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