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-Application to audience
-Establish credibility
-Clearly states thesis
-Develops main points
-Uses transition to signal start of body paragraph


-Develop main points (thesis) using structure that fits the topic, audience and occasion
-Includes vocally cited sources
-Uses transition to signal conclusion


-Restates thesis and speech purpose
-Leaves audience with a clincher/something to think about
-Has a call to action
-Prepares speaker to answer questions

A Well-organized Speech is Characterized by?

1) Unity 2) Coherence 3) Balance

Main Points Should?

Flow directly from the speech goal and thesis

Types of Organizational Patterns

1) Chronological 2) Spatial 3) Causal 4) Problem-solution 5) Topical 6) Narrative 7) Circular

Chronological Pattern

Follows the natural sequential order of the main points

Spatial Pattern

Describing the physical arragement of a place in order of their physical proximity relative to one another

Causal (cause-effect) Pattern

Adresses the causes and effects of an issue

Problem-Solution Pattern

Presents the problem (defines it) and then proposes a solution

Topical Pattern

Dividing your speech's main points into categories

Narrative Pattern

Speech consists of a story (and has those characteristics) but still contains the basic structure (intro, body, conc)


When you want listeners to follow a line of reasoning in which one topic leads to the next and so on until you again reach your thesis

2 Types of Outlines

Working Outline and Speaking Outline

Working Outline

Is like your speech rough draft and is used to organize and firm up your main points and evidence

Speaking Outline

Also called the delivery outline and is the outline you practice with and eventually deliver as your final draft

Types of Speech Outlines

Sentence Outline, Phrase Outline, Key-Word Outline

Sentence Outline

Each main point and subpoint is stated in a single, declaritive sentence

Phrase Outline

Uses partial construction of the sentence form for each point

Key-Word Outline

Uses the smallest possible units of understanding to outline your points (ex: a single word)

Ways to Gain Audience Attention

-Ask a Question
-Startling Statistic
-Reference to Audience or Occasion

Preview Statement

Identifies the main points of the speech, helping the audience members be alert to key ideas and helps you keep their attention

Motivate The Audience to Accept Your Goals

The audience must believe that the topic is relevant to them (why they should care) and that you are qualified to address it

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