20 terms

Science: Rocks & Minerals Vocabulary

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chemical weathering
The process by which minerals in a rock can change because of chemicals in water and air. It can change rocks and cause them to break apart.
physical weathering
The process by which rocks are broken down by breaking and banging.
metamorphic rock
A kind of rock that forms when rocks and minerals are subjected to heat and pressure.
sedimentary rock
A rock that forms in layers when sediments get cemented together.
igneous rock
Any rock that forms when melted rock (magma) hardens.
cleavage
The appearance of the surfaces of freshly broken minerals.
deposition
The settling of sediments.
erosion
The carrying away of weathered earth materials by water, wind, or ice.
hardness
A property of minerals determined by trying to scratch them with different materials.
landform
A feature of the land, such as a mountain, canyon, or beach.
luster
A description of the way light reflects off the surface of a freshly broken mineral.
mineral
An ingredient in a rock.
property
A characteristic that describes an object, such as size, shape, and texture.
rock cycle
The processes by which rocks change into different kinds of rocks.
rock
A solid earth material usually made of two or more minerals.
streak
The line left behind when a mineral sample is rubbed on a tile.
weathering
The process by which larger rocks are cracked and broken over time to form smaller rocks.
geologist
A scientist who studies Earth, its materials, and its history.
magma
Melted rock below the Earth's surface.
volcano
An opening in the Earth's crust where lava, cinders, ash, and gases come to the surface.
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