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Genetics Chapter 16
Terms in this set (78)
Similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation
1. Control of transcription through specific DNA-binding proteins
2. Re-utilization of same DNA-binding motifs by different DNA-binding proteins
3. Activator proteins
4. Repressor proteins
Things prokaryotic regulation has and eukaryotic doesnt.
-Coordinate control achieved with operons
Features of eukaryotic gene regulation
-Chromatin structure plays key role in gene regulation
-RNA processing- splicing, polyadenylation
-Transcription within the nucleus, translation in the cytoplasm
-Many different cell/tissue/organ types
-Development and differentiation
Gene expression process (locations
Gene expression involves transcription and mRNA processing in the nucleus, then translation and modifications in the cytoplasm to produce an active protein.
RNA pol I
Major ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs)
RNA pol II
transcribes genes that encode all proteins by encoding mRNAs and microRNAs (major transcription RNA)
RNA pol III
tRNA genes and various small RNAs.
located near gene's protein coding sequence. Location where RNA pol II initiates transcription Initiation site is often a TATA box.
regulatory sites that can be quite distant from the promoter. They can be in the 5' sequence of the gene, the 3' sequence, or within introns of a gene. They increase the rate of transcription from a promoter. Enhancers can function in either orientation. (cis or trans)
cis-acting regulatory region consists of
Promoters and enhancers (can act trans too)
Identifying cis acting eukaryotic elements
1. Use reporter genes: GFP or lacZ (easily detected)
2. Fuse between a gene's regulatory region and the reporter gene.
3. Introducer regulatory element-reporter gene into cell
4. Measure reporter gene expression level which are caused by base changes that reduce transcription
Trans-acting elements encode products called transcription factors that interact with cis-acting elements, either directly through DNA binding or indirectly through protein-protein interactions.
Proteins that regulate transcription. Include basal factors and activators and repressors.
Basal factors attach where?
Factors that bind to the promoter regions
Activators attach where?
Bind to enhancer regions
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