72 terms

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Is bacteria a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Most bacteria are killed
above maximum growth temp.
Methane is the end product of
Carbon dioxide is the end product of
aerobic respiration
Lactic acid is the end product of
Fermentation, Pyruvic Acid Cycle
Alcohol is produced by
Ethynole and isopropenol
yeast fermentation
The optimal growth Centigrade temp for bacteria that live in humans is
39 degrees C
During the plateau phase of the bacteria growth graph (Stationary Phase)...
Growth rate equals the death rate
A facultative anaerobe...
prefers oxygen
An obligate anaerobe...
harmed by toxic forms of oxygen
no neutralizer enzymes
What does sterilization do?
It removes all microbial life
A bacteriostatic agent kills...
Commercial food sterilization kills...
C. botulinum endospores
A sanitizing agent kills enough bacteria and viruses on objects to...
Safe levels
-Heating reduces spoilage organisms and pathogens
-High heat for a short time-later used for milk
Refrigeration only...
Inhibits microbial growth
Silver is an example of
A heavy metal (chemical disinfectant)
Silver-sulfadiazine is used for
Burn and wound dressings
Zinc chloride is a
Mouthwash and "Zicam" lozenges
Ethylene oxide is a
Gaseous sterilant
-highly penetrating
-kills all microbes and endospores
Hot-air sterilization is
-hot air 170degrees C for 2hrs
-less efficient than moist heat for sterilizing objects
Boiling kills most microbes in
Ten minutes
Isopropanol is not
Effective against endospores or non-enveloped viruses
Sodium hypochlorite is
A chlorine disinfectant
The effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment is dependent on
-Number of microbes
-Environment--organic matter, temp, biofilms
-Time of exposure
-Microbial characteristics
In eukaryotes, the Kreb's cycle occurs in the
Matrix of the mitochondria
In prokaryotes, the Kreb's cycle occurs in the
The first step in identifying bacteria is
whether it is gram negative or positive
Clostridium botulinum causes a form of
botulism--repiratory paralysis
Clostridium tetani causes a form of
Clostridium difficile causes
serious diarrhea after normal flora
Staphylococcus has a pigment that is
Algae is
a eukaryote
Toxoplasmosis gondii is associated with
-cats and rats
-congenital infections of fetus
-human contact with oocytes in feces
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is associated with
-Tsetse fly
-Sleeping sickness--fever, headaches, coma, death
Rheumatic fever is caused by untreated
Streptococcus pyogenes "Strep Throat" Pharyngitis
Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes a gray membrane
of fibrin and dead tissue
The diagnosis of otitis media is made by
Broad spectrum antibiotics
Symptoms of the common cold include
-Nasal secretions
The normal duration of the common cold is
about one week
The following IS NOT a clinical symptom of influenza
NO intestinal symptoms
Tuberculosis is contracted by the inhalation of
coughed droplets
Meningitis is the infection of the
Encephalitis is the infection of
brain tissue
Botulism grows in
The best way to prevent spread of the common cold is to
wash hands
Tetanus grows in
deep wounds and punctures
Prions are
-Infectious pieces of protein
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is caused by
Gentamycin is
-a soil fungus
-Micromonospora purpurae
-renal, otic toxicity risk/benefit in pseudomonas
Chloramphenicol is
-one of the most original anitbiotics
-Streptomyces spp bacteria
-high risk of aplastic anemia
-benefit only for salmonella typhoid fever and N. meningitis
Erythromycin is used against
soil bacteria--streptococcus erythraea
A narrow spectrum antibiotic
active against a few bacteria species
A broad spectrum antibiotic
active against many species
DNA fingerprinting compares
one known to another unknown
Electrophoresis is a process that moves protein fragments
-separates the DNA fragments
-creates "fingerprint" pattern that is compared and matched
In the upper respiratory tract, pathogens are
-Normal flora --potentially pathogenic
In the lower respiratory tract, pathogens are
-no normal flora/ usually sterile
Whooping cough is a
gram negative coccobacillus
Haemophilus influenza commonly causes a form of
Legionella pneumophila causes
Legionnaire's disease
MRSA stands for
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
yersinia pestis causes
Enterotoxigenic E Coli is the
toxin, not invasive
Enterohemorrhagic E Coli is the
Toxin, invasive
Francisella tularensis is associated with
tularemia- rodents to lymph nodes
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is associated with
coastal shellfish
Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes a form of
Yersinia pestis is associated with
Most E coli strains are
Bacillus anthracis is associated with
-sheep and cattle
Pseudomonas aeroginosa has a
blue-green puss