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Exam 3-Dysarthrias

STUDY
PLAY
Dysarthria and apraxia
can be both developmental or acquired.
a good dysarthria assessment should:
calculate clients speaking rate.
some with severe and profound motor speech disorders:
require augmentative/alternative communication.
speech diadochokinetics:
are very helpful in distinguishing apraxia from dysarthria.
stuttering:
has a low familial incidence.
Children are more fluent at:
25 months than they are at 37 months.
Apraxia
motor planing disorder
dysarthria
motor execution disorder
Flaccid dysarthria
is caused by damage to brain stem or spinal cord.
Spastic dysarthria
occurs from damage to the cerebral cortex.
hypokinetic dysarthria
occurs from damage to the basal ganglia.
Ataxic dysarthria
occurs from damage to the cerebellum.
hyperkinetic dysarthria
occurs from damage to the basal ganglia.
hypotonia, hyporeflexia, atrophy are
associated with flaccid dysarthria.
hypertonia, hyperreflexia, contracture are
associated with spastic dysarthria.
spots of perfect speech, groping, increasing errors with length, variable accuracy are
associated with apraxia
apraxia therapy is
sensory bombardment
most critical for safe swallowing and often addressed by SLP's
Pharyngeal Phase
Gold standard or preferred method to assess all phases of swallowing disorders
Modified Barium Swallow
does not react after ingesting food into the airway or lungs
silent aspiration
easiest food consistency with severe dysphagia
pureed foods like pudding
NPO
not by mouth
highest incidence of persons who naturally recover from stuttering
is preschoolers.
ration for male to female stuttering
3:1
Normal disfluencies differ from stuttering by
More whole word repetitions and more phrase repetitions.
Multisyllable whole word repetition is an example of:
Within-word repetition
a Sound prolongation would be an example of
Between word repetition
Onset of stuttering usually begins between
2 and 5
Bloodstein's Phase 2 developmental stuttering is
chronic
a theory of stuttering that proposes stuttering is organically based is
Theory of cerebral dominance
stuttering develops when environmental demands are too high
Demands and Capacities model
Most recent finding in studies indicated that the highest efficacy of treatment is with
preschool aged kids
Fluency shaping techniques:
-Gentle Voicing Onsets
-Gradual increase in length and complexity
Stuttering modification techniques:
-Cancellations
-Preparatory sets
Prognostic statement:
Goes at the end of an assessment and estimates success and improvement with treatment.
Phonological impairment:
disorder of conceptualized language.
Articulation:
disorder in producing sounds. sound errors.
Errors categorized into 4 types:
1. addition
2. substitutions
3. omission
4. distortion
4 goals of assessment:
1. discuss speech sound inventory.
2. identify error patterns
3. identify ecological factors
4. plan treatment
Traditional Motor Speech Approach:
auditory discrimination training, moves to establishment of sound and production training beginning in isolation moving to conversations, generalization, maintenance.
Phonology:
is the knowledge of the sounds of the language and the rules that govern their production and combination.
Phonological Awareness
is the child's underlying knowledge that words are made of sounds and sound combinations.
Dysarthria:
a group of motor-speech disorders caused by neuromuscular deficits that result in weakness or paralysis and/ or poor coordination of speech musculature.
Cycles Approach:
is a treatment approach used with a client who has a phonological impairment, is highly structured , and incorporates minimal pair contrasts.
Sensory-motor approach:
begins at the syllable level with production training and is a bottom up drill.
Cerebral palsy:
a neuromotor disorder caused by brain damage before, during, or soon after birth can result in communication impairments.