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Dysarthria and apraxia

can be both developmental or acquired.

a good dysarthria assessment should:

calculate clients speaking rate.

some with severe and profound motor speech disorders:

require augmentative/alternative communication.

speech diadochokinetics:

are very helpful in distinguishing apraxia from dysarthria.


has a low familial incidence.

Children are more fluent at:

25 months than they are at 37 months.


motor planing disorder


motor execution disorder

Flaccid dysarthria

is caused by damage to brain stem or spinal cord.

Spastic dysarthria

occurs from damage to the cerebral cortex.

hypokinetic dysarthria

occurs from damage to the basal ganglia.

Ataxic dysarthria

occurs from damage to the cerebellum.

hyperkinetic dysarthria

occurs from damage to the basal ganglia.

hypotonia, hyporeflexia, atrophy are

associated with flaccid dysarthria.

hypertonia, hyperreflexia, contracture are

associated with spastic dysarthria.

spots of perfect speech, groping, increasing errors with length, variable accuracy are

associated with apraxia

apraxia therapy is

sensory bombardment

most critical for safe swallowing and often addressed by SLP's

Pharyngeal Phase

Gold standard or preferred method to assess all phases of swallowing disorders

Modified Barium Swallow

does not react after ingesting food into the airway or lungs

silent aspiration

easiest food consistency with severe dysphagia

pureed foods like pudding


not by mouth

highest incidence of persons who naturally recover from stuttering

is preschoolers.

ration for male to female stuttering


Normal disfluencies differ from stuttering by

More whole word repetitions and more phrase repetitions.

Multisyllable whole word repetition is an example of:

Within-word repetition

a Sound prolongation would be an example of

Between word repetition

Onset of stuttering usually begins between

2 and 5

Bloodstein's Phase 2 developmental stuttering is


a theory of stuttering that proposes stuttering is organically based is

Theory of cerebral dominance

stuttering develops when environmental demands are too high

Demands and Capacities model

Most recent finding in studies indicated that the highest efficacy of treatment is with

preschool aged kids

Fluency shaping techniques:

-Gentle Voicing Onsets
-Gradual increase in length and complexity

Stuttering modification techniques:

-Preparatory sets

Prognostic statement:

Goes at the end of an assessment and estimates success and improvement with treatment.

Phonological impairment:

disorder of conceptualized language.


disorder in producing sounds. sound errors.

Errors categorized into 4 types:

1. addition
2. substitutions
3. omission
4. distortion

4 goals of assessment:

1. discuss speech sound inventory.
2. identify error patterns
3. identify ecological factors
4. plan treatment

Traditional Motor Speech Approach:

auditory discrimination training, moves to establishment of sound and production training beginning in isolation moving to conversations, generalization, maintenance.


is the knowledge of the sounds of the language and the rules that govern their production and combination.

Phonological Awareness

is the child's underlying knowledge that words are made of sounds and sound combinations.


a group of motor-speech disorders caused by neuromuscular deficits that result in weakness or paralysis and/ or poor coordination of speech musculature.

Cycles Approach:

is a treatment approach used with a client who has a phonological impairment, is highly structured , and incorporates minimal pair contrasts.

Sensory-motor approach:

begins at the syllable level with production training and is a bottom up drill.

Cerebral palsy:

a neuromotor disorder caused by brain damage before, during, or soon after birth can result in communication impairments.

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