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in psychoanalysis, a method of looking at the unconscious where a person relaxes and speaks their mind, no matter how embarrassing
Freud's theory of personality, attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. (Basic idea is that what we think and how we act is based on our unconscious mind and our childhood experiences)
part of mind unaware of, made up of unacceptable thoughts, feelings, wishes, and memories.
right below the conscious, there isn't complete control but still accessible. outside awareness
unconscious psychic energy. strives to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce, and aggress. operates on pleasure principle which demands immediate gratification. not much control over this.
operates on reality principle, seeks to gratify id's impulses in realistic ways. mostly conscious awareness and judgement and memory
begins around age 4 or 5, voice of conscious that forces ego to consider not only the real but ideal viewpoints
in psychoanalytic theory, a way the ego protects itself against anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts that are thought to be unacceptable in society. (unconscious forgetting) ex. forgetting about a test even if you have known about it for months
defense mechanism that allows us to retreat to an earlier more infintile stage of development, first day of school kids will start sucking their thumbs again even if they havent done that in years
defense mechanism where the ego unconsciously makes unacceptable impulses seem like their opposites. a boy will react to their strong sexual attraction to women by becoming a woman hater.
defense mechanism where impulses are disguised by putting the thought onto another thought. someone who critizes people for gossiping is actually a huge gossip themself
defense mechanism where we unconsciously give a self-justifying explanation for actions to hide the real reason. so tell yourself there is a more acceptable reason for something so you don't realize how bad the thought is. a parent who sees there child stab animals will tell themself the kid is going to be a doctor so it is ok they are stabbing animals
defense mechanism that puts a sexual or aggressive impulse onto another object or person. example would be slamming the door when mad at your mom, kicking your dog when your friend and you got into a fight
defense mechanism where you channel your aggressive feelings onto a different activity. example someone who fights in school will excel at soccer in high school
theory developed by Carl Jung, idea that people from the same culture or group will have the same unconscious thoughts, and these thoughts and values can be passed down.
a personality test, example inkblot test or TAT, gives stimuli that gets a person to give feelings from their unconscious
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test where a person is shown a picture then tells a story about the picture, the things they say in the picture give insight on what they feel in their unconscious.
most used projective test, where a person is shown a set of 10 inkblots, identifys peoples inner feelings by analyzing what they say about the inkblots.
faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self esteem provides protection against deeply rooted fear of death. terror resulting from our awareness of vulnerability and death and how we deal with it
we have our set schemas and ideas for what a man, woman, etc. are so its a way to individuate from our norms and normal schema
characteristics of behavior, a way we feel and act, assessed by self report inventories and peer reports
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
a test that asks about a persons values, then gives strength so everyone gets flattered,
the "Big Five" factors
CANOE, (conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion)
long questionare where people respond to items that ask about a wide range of feelings and behaviors, designed to assess several traits at once
MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory )
most widely researched and clinically used personality test. originally developed to identify emotional disorders, assess abnormal personality tendencies, rather than normal traits
a test developed by testing a large pool of items then selecting the ones that discriminate between groups
look for genuine personality traits that occur over time and across different scenarios.
on maslows hierarchy of needs, it is the top that a person tries to reach throughout their life, when every one of your physical and physiological needs are met, complete fulfillment of ones potential
in the moment feels life fulfilling, example graduating, or bat mitzvah, or winning a game. not real self actualization just temporarily fulfilling
unconditional positive regard
idea created by Carl Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person. seeing the good in everyone, if you do bad on a test, its still very good that you put forth effort. very humanistic
our readiness to perceive ourself favorably, so be able to tell ourself we are good
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance. when we feel the attention is always on us and everyone is judging
the effect environment has on behavior and cognition(thoughts) created by Bandura
the hopelessness someone learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. example dog with electric shock floor, one without the button gives up and thinks cant jump over...or word scramble give up when first 2 dont make sense
type of psych that helps people see the optomistic good side to things. humanistic, similar to unconditional positive regard
Psychologist who agreed with Freud that childhood experiences were important in shaping personality, but focused on the social factor not sex.
Psychologist who agreed with Alfred Adler, also countered the bias of masculine views to psychology
Psychologist that was the student of Freud, placed much more emphasis on social factor, believed in the collective unconscious
Psychologist who developed hierarchy of needs, used to show personality because personality develops as a person moves through the pyramid
Psychologist who believed in humanistic views, developed theory of unconditional positive regard
behavior and memory common to all humans and passed down from our ancient and common ancestors
discrepancies between our self-concept and our actual thoughts and behavior, as well as feedback
ways in which people explain themselves or react in different situations, can be positive or negative
proposed extent to which people take responsibility of their successes or failures plays a major role in personality (locus of control theory)
Big Five personality traits
introversion-extroversion, neuroticism-stability, agreeableness-antagonism, conscientiousness-indirectedness, and openness-nonopenness
2 ways of researching traits
nomothetic (Big 5 traits are universal)
Idiographic (traits unique to individual)
found 3 types of traits
cardinal (traits override person's hole being)
central (primary characteristics)
secondary (traits that constitute interests)
said there were 16 source traits (underlying characteristics) which were under surface traits (those seen by everyone)
Eysenck Personality Inventory
questionnaire designed to examine personalities based on people's traits
(Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 2nd ed) measures everything from traits to mental disorders
ME is comprised of
-physical self: body, name
-active self: our behavior
-social self: how we interact with others
psychological self: our feelings and personalities
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