47 terms


exam 2
sociology has developed a single comprehensive theory about how the self develops
when people move from one place, job, or life situation to another they often have to undergo resocialization
unlike george herbert mead, charles cooley did not believe that the self was created largely through social interaction
our social networks consist of just our closest friends and family
bicycle races, like the tour de france, have individual heros but are actually team events
according to emile durkheim all of the social groups to which an individual is connected impose norms, which place limits on her actions
deviance is an objective or unchanging phenomenon that transcends culture, history, and situational context
culture is the total way of life of a group of people
cultural relativism and ethnocentrism are extremely similar concepts
values and norms are symbolic culture in action
according to the sociologist howard becker, there are no inherently deviant acts, only societal reactions to acts that make them deviant
there is almost always a strong casual link between the cost of a punishment and the benefit of commiting a crime. that is, if the punishment is more severe, people are less likely to commit the crime.
the tendency to use your own groups way of doing things as the yardstick for judging others is called:
it challenges peoples inability to observe their own cultures
the article "body ritual among the nacirema" is useful to sociologists because:
what does ch.4 claim is the most significant component of culture?
language can structure our perception of reality
the sapir-whorf hypothesis suggest that:
which of the following is clearly an example of a taboo in american society
the core values of a group
unlike a folkway, a more is closely related to:
what term did the sociologist george ritzer use to describe the spread of rationalization and bureaucratic ways of operating into everyday life?
the line b/t beauty and deviance is fluid and changes across time a place
many people, especially women, worry about maintaing a tan. sometimes if they dont have time to tan naturally they go to a tanning salon or use chemicals to stimulate a tan. in some cultures this might seem bizarre, which can help us realize that?
as a way of targeting groups who threaten socieites elites
according to conflict theory, why are vagrancy laws passed?
the goal of success is shared by a majority of people, but not everyone has equal means to achieve that goal
according to the structural strain theory of deviance, as articulated by robert merton, one of the principle reasons that people turn to deviant behavior in the U.S. is that:
all of the above--culture includes the habits and lifestyle choices of a group of people, culture includes customs and rituals and tools and aritfacts, culture shapes and defines who we are, culture encompasses every aspect of social life
what is the definition of culture
informal norms are implicit and unspoken
how are informal norms different from formal norms?
dominant culture
the values, norms, and practices of the most powerful group within society are called the:
the complex interaction b/t hereditary traits and social learning
the nature vs. nurture debate helps us to understand:
to help regulate injuries to the prefrontal cortex
which of the following is not one of the goals of socialization
interactions with other people
"each to each a looking glass/reflects the other that doth pass" this phrase associated with charles cooley, indicates that our sense of self originates in:
a statys that seems to override all other statuses that an individual may possess
how is the term "master status" defined?
a crowd doesnt necessarily feel a shared identity
how do sociologists distinguish a group from a crowd
the audience at a broadway show
which of the following is not a group in the sociological sense
primary groups never try to sanction members or otherwise affect their behavior
which of the following is not a true statement about primary groups
running water, packaged food, and indoor plumbing are all conviences made possible by what type of group?
overcome the looking-glass self
when an individual can internalize the expectations of other specific people, they have learned to:
W.I. Thomas
which theorist argues that is people "define a situation as real, it is real in its consequences
impression management
erving goffman theorized social life as a kind of con game in which each individual works to contorl the impressions that others have of her. what did goffman call this process?
families begin the socialization process before there are any other competing influences
why does the family have such powerful impact as an agent of socialization
all of the above--getting a divorce, starting a family, getting a new job, retiring
which of the following is an example of an altered life circumstance that will require some degree of resocialization
anomie, or normalness
emile durkheim worried that, in an increasingly fragmented modern world, individuals would feel less connected to groups, which would lead to:
social influence
(graph) when group members claimes that line b in ex.2 matched the like in ex.1 about 75% of test subjects agreed. which principle explains this phenomenon?
instrumental leaders
what are leaders called whose personal style makes them more task or goal oriented and less concerned with people feelings
the personal qualities of the leader
unlike either traditional authority or legal-rational authority, charasmatic authority is rooted in:
violations of social norms
which of the following would sociologists consider the best definition of deviance
Yes, it would be in the US though there are other cultures that would consider it normal or desirable
imagine that a powerful and influential person decided to heavily tatto her own face with symbols and images that told parts of her life story. would she be treated as a deviant?
differential association theory
the idea that indivduals learn to be deviant by interacting with others who are already deviant is called:
a self-fulfilling prophecy
what did robert merton call a prediction that came true only because the prediction was made?
all of the above--physical disability, alcohol addiction, mental illness, served time in jail
which kinds of departures from the norm have a stigmatizing effect on an individuals indentity?