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By what period of time did England's feudal lords lose much of their power to the king?
the late Middle Ages
Originally, France shipped _____ and _____ to England; England shipped _____ to France.
wine; beer; textiles
After France's last Capetian ruler died, who wanted the throne, even though he was not French?
Why did Scotland side with France in the Hundred Years' War?
Scotland had been warring with England.
Who were Edward III's parents?
King Edward II of England and Isabella, daughter of the Capetian King Philip IV
What was the long-term effect of the Hundred Years' War on England?
Parliament, especially the House of Commons, gained more power over the king. It won the rights of a special council to advise the king and to consider new taxes before they were discussed by the House of Lords. By the late 1300s, the king needed Parliament's consent on all special taxes.
What two French groups clashed with each other during the Hundred Years' War?
the House of Burgundy and the House of Orleans
What test did Charles VII conduct on Joan of Arc?
He had his noblemen dress in royal clothes, while he wore commoners' clothes, to see if she recognized him (despite never having seen Charles VII before).
What are the two conflicting accounts of Joan of Arc's story?
One account says that she did not fight in the war. Another says that she did and actually physically killed the Earl of Salisbury.
During the Hundred Years' War, who controlled finances and passed laws in France?
the Estates General
What three groups made up the Estates General?
clergy (First Estate), nobles (Second Estate), and commoners (Third Estate)
True/False: French peasants, unlike those in England, gained little freedom over the Middle Ages and still owed services to the manor and its lord.
What event signaled the end of the Reconquista in Spain?
the capture of Granada, the Moors' last stronghold in Spain
What palace was one of the most important buildings retaken from the Moors?
the Alhambra Palace in Granada
What two groups did Ferdinand and Isabella order to become Christians or leave Spain?
Jews and Moors
Did most Jews and Moors under Ferdinand and Isabella become Christians or leave Spain?
They left Spain.
What term is given to the period of time in which all Jews and Moors were persecuted by Ferdinand and Isabella?
In the early Middle Ages, how was the Holy Roman emperor voted for?
The rulers of German states and the Pope elected him.
What did Emperor Charles IV's decree issued in 1356 state?
Only seven electors (three archbishops and four German princes) would choose the emperor.
What were two ways the Habsburgs gained power and wealth?
They arranged marriages with powerful families and followed careful strategies of armed conquest to gradually win land and power.
What three regions were brought under Habsburg control by Maximilian I's marriage?
the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Burgundy
What Habsburg member married into the Spanish royal family, gaining large Spanish and Italian holdings?
Philip, Maximilian I's son
What prevented Italy from being united?
the Papal States, which were in the middle of the Italian Peninsula
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