IB Geography Food and Health
Optional Unit 2 (Paper 2)
Terms in this set (36)
Crops that have been genetically engineered to be resistant to fungi, salt, cold, to be nutritionally better.
(High Yield Varieties) Genetically engineered staple crops whose productivity per hectare is higher than other crops. Can have several harvests a year.
The application of science and technology to increase food production. This happens through HYVs, increased fertilizer use, etc.
Essential if maximum yield is to be sustained. Allows agriculture to take place in semi-arid and arid areas.
Destroy crop competitors (insects, weeds)
Large-scale businesses linked to agriculture. They often carry out biotechnological research and development.
Improving the roads, power supplies, water supplies in countries to allow farmers to work efficiently.
Socially, economically and environmental responsible trade. Where companies take responsibility for the wider impact of their business. Helps farmers get a fair price.
Providing emergency food in famine situation.
short-term hunger (caused by drought, famine, war)
when a person does not consume either enough food or enough variety of foods to remain in decent health
when subsistence farmers in LEDCs abandon food production and switch to commercial production of non-food crops
Health adjusted life expectancy. It is based on life expectacny at birth but adjusted to account for time spent in poor health due to disease or injury.
the distance that food travels from where it is grown to where it is consumed
The ability of individuals to obtain sufficient food on a day-to-day basis
Food availablility deficit
Food is physically unavailable due to drought, flood or other crop shortage
Food entitlement deficit
Food is available but not everyone is able to afford it because of rising costs.
A number of countries decide to import goods from a number of other countries such as the EU having an agreement with the ACP (African Caribbean and Pacific Nations) for bannanas.
One consumer enters an agreement with one producer. When a british supermarket chain make an agreement to buy millions of fair trade bannanas from the island of St. Lucia.
financial assistance to farmers through government-sponsored price-support programs.
Energy efficiency ratio
A measure of the amount of energy inputs into a system compared with the outputs. EER = energy outputs divided by energy inputs. Used to compute sustainablility in agriculture. Inputs should be smaller than outputs.
an amount of a renewable recourse that can be harvested regularly with out reducing the future supply.
Diseases of affluence
Diseases normally associated with MEDCs. They are chronic, non-communicable diseases associated with increased wealth and economic development.
Diseases of poverty
Diseases normally associated with LEDCs. They are infectious, communicable diseases.
a disease that can be passed to a person from another person, animal, or object
diseases that result from gradual damage to organs over time; osteoathritis, cardiovascular disease
Number of cases of a disease per 10,000. Expressed as a percentage or ratio to show the number of cases per capita
The number of reported cases of the disease reported annually.
any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease
the shift within a coutry of the principal causes of death from infectious to degenerative diseases as a country becomes more developed.
The spread of something
A disease spreads from a source location outwards
A diseases moves with the source from one location to a new location.
Disease spread via networks such as along railways or roadways
When a disease spreads through an ordered sequence of places or classes, for example it starts in the inner city, moves to other parts of the city and out to the suburbs.