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Atlanta Compromise Speech
(1895)-speech made by Booker T. Washington and the International Cotton exposition which called for blacks to become proficient in agriculture, mechanics, and commerce, and for whites to trust blacks and provide opportunities for them to be successful economically.
Atlanta Race Riot
(1906)- 48 hour riot in Atlanta caused by economic competition and false newspaper accounts of African-American men attacking white women; several African-Americans were killed during the riot.
Bourbon Triumvirate
three powerful Georgia politicians (Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon) who dominated Georgia politics for over 20 years.
Convict Lease System
a system that provided convict labor to private parties such as railroad companies or plantation owners.
County Unit System
a voting system that gave more power to Georgia's rural counties than urban ones.
Disenfranchisement
to deprive a person the right to vote or rights of citizenship
Dubois, W.E.B.
(1868-1963)- civil rights leader and college professor who fought for immediate social and political rights for African-Americans
Felton, Rebecca Latimer
(1835-1930)- Georgia writer, political activist, social reformer, and first female U.S. senator.
Grady, Henry
(1850-1889)- managing editor for the Atlanta Journal who promoted the concept of the "New South."
Grandfather Clause
disenfranchisement law that said if a person's father could vote before the Civil War they would be able to vote as well.
Herndon, Alonzo
(1858-1927)- founder of the Atlanta Mutual Life Insurance Company.
Hope, John
(1868-1936)- an important educator, civil rights leader, and social reformer; president of Morehouse and Atlanta University.
Hope, Lugenia Burns
(1871-1947)- community organizer, reformer, and social activist; wife of John Hope.
Independent Democrats
group of Democrats in Georgia who were opposed to the policies of the Bourbon Triumvirate.
International Cotton Expositions
a series of three large events (1881, 1885, 1895) established to display Atlanta's growth and industrial capabilities and to lure Northern investment to the region.
Jim Crow Laws
laws created by state legislatures to deny African-Americans citizenship rights.
Leo Frank Case
trial where a Northern Jewish pencil factory manager was accused of murdering 13 year old Mary Phagan; found guilty of the crime and sentenced to death, his sentence was later reduced to life due to additional evidence. However, a group of men calling themselves "the Knights of Mary Phagan" took Frank out of his prison cell and lynched him in Marietta.
Literacy Test
a disenfranchising tactic that required voters to pass a reading and writing test in order to vote.
New Democrats
another name for the Independent Democrats
New South
period after Reconstruction where political and community leaders in the South sought to diversify Georgia's economy and bring Northern technology and/or investments into the state.
Poll Tax
a disenfranchising tactic that required voters to pay a fee in order to vote; this prevented poor blacks and whites from voting
Populist Party
a short lived political party (1892-1908) made up of farmers that were hostile to banks, railroads, and social elites. At the beginning, the party was made up of both whites and blacks. Georgian Tom Watson was a leader and presidential candidate for the party.
Plessy V. Ferguson
(1892)- Supreme Court case that established the separate but equal doctrine thus promoting segregation.
Rural Free Delivery Act
legislation proposed by Georgia Congressman Tom Watson that provided free mail delivery to rural areas of the country.
Separate but Equal
Supreme Court ruling that legalized racial segregation as long as the facilities were equally funded; however, this was rarely the case.
The Talented Tenth
W.E.B. Dubois' concept of an elite group of college educated African-Americans who would use their talents and position to eradicate segregation in American society.
Washington, Booker T
(1856-1915)-educator, author, political activist, and orator; promoted the idea that African-Americans should pursue economic and educational endeavors before seeking social and political equality.
Watson, Tom
(1856-1922)-lawyer, writer, and politician from Georgia; most well-known for his rural free delivery bill; began his career in the independent democrat and populist party with a progressive view of racial policies; ended his career as an ardent segregationist and anti-Semite; died while serving a term as U.S. senator from Georgia
Women's Suffrage
national political moment supporting women's right to vote.