Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account

version 2

three main functions of blood:

transportation, regulation, and defense

Composition of blood

Plasma (liquid portion of blood), Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Thrombocytes

three regulation jobs of blood:

body temperature regulation, tissue fluid content regulation, and blood pH regulation

Whole blood

Blood contained in the cardiovascular system

Peripheral Blood

whole blood flowing through the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the heart.


less plasma in bloodstream so cells become more concentrated


excess fluid dilutes cells in blood

Blood functions as a defense system through the presence of _____ _____ ____?

White Blood Cells


allows damage to blood vessels to be controlled.

Erythrocyte (Red Blood Cell)

carry oxygen from lungs to cells and tissues.
* look like biconcave disks

Leukocyte (White Blood Cell)

provide defense from foreign invaders in the body.
* Granulocytic or Agranulocytic

Thrombocyte (Platelet)

help prevent leaks from damaged blood vessels


the production of all blood cells


the production of red blood cells


process of formation of white blood cells (leukocytes)


the production of platelets

types of Leukocytes:

Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophils, Monocytes, and Lymphocytes.


make up only 5% or less of total white blood cell count.
* often have a segmented nucleus that has only 2 lobes


cell type that is least often seen in the circulation and therefore, least understood


the most numerous white blood cell in the circulation of a dog, cat, or horse.

Band Neutrophil

Immature neutrophils that have a horseshoe nucleus w/out any segmentation


Largest cells in white blood cell category
* immature macrophages


the only white blood cell that doesn't have phagocytic abilities and does not mature in the bone marrow.

Two types of T lymphocytes (T-cells):

Killer T-cells & Helper T-cells

3 types of Lymphocytes:

T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, Natural killer cells


fluid portion of the blood and is about 93% water. Also makes up the majority of the blood.

biconcave disc

shape used to describe a red blood cell

3 important functions of the biconcave disc shape:

Deformable (but not elastic), provides more membrane surface, and a shorter diffusion distance.

Function of a mature red blood cell?

carries oxygen to all parts of the body


protein in red blood cells that binds with oxygen

Two components that make up Hemoglobin:

"Heme" & "Globin"


pigment portion produced in mitochondria
* contains iron


protein produced by ribosomes

how many oxygen molecules can each Hemoglobin molecule carry?

4 oxygen molecules

two physiological states of Hemoglobin?

Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin


hemoglobin carrying oxygen


hemoglobin that has given up its oxygen

How is carbon dioxide transported?

By transforming into carbonic acid.


The process of aging

extravascular hemolysis

the breaking down of old red blood cells outside of the circulation by macrophages.


what "leftover" heme is converted into before it is removed from the body

intravascular hemolysis

destruction that takes place within the blood vessels


protein that transports hemoglobin to macrophages during intravascular hemolysis


decreased ability to carry oxygen to the blood.

two major abnormalities that cause anemia:

low number of mature blood cells circulating, not enough hemoglobin being produced.


abnormal increase of red blood cells

Relative Polycythemia

occurs with loss of loss of fluid from the blood or hemoconcentration.
*occurs in dehydrated animals

Compensatory Polycythemia

low levels of oxygen cause an increased production of red blood cells stimulated through the bone marrow. *result of hypoxia

Polycythemia rubra vera

rare bone marrow disease, charecterized by an increased production of red blood cells for an unknown reason.


cells named for the color of the granules in their cytoplasm when viewed on a stained smear.

three cell types included in the Granulocyte group

neutrophils, eosinifils, basophils


formation of Granulocytes


process in which neutraphils and other white blood cells leave the circulation


process in which neutrophils are attracted to a site of infection


plasma protein that usually contains a specific antibody


process in which allows a neutraphil to recognize a microorganism as a foreign invader.

the 2 pools of neutraphils found in peripheral blood:

circulating pools and marginal pools

circulating pools

nutriphils within the lumen of blood vessels

marginal pools

line the walls of small blood vessels in the spleen, lungs, and abdominal organs.

Mast Cells

share some common characteristics with Basophils

two granules present in Basophils:

histamine and heparin


cells that do not have specific staining granules in their cytoplasm.

two cell types included in the Agranulocyte group:

Monocytes and Lymphocytes


helps initiate inflamation and allergic reactions


Acts as a localized anticoagulent to keep blood flowing to an injured or damaged


clean up cellular debris, ingest antigens and present them to lymphocytes (B-cells and T-cells) to destroy the antigen, and ingest foreign substances

T lymphocytes (T-cells)

lymphocytes that are processed in the thymus, but found in the blood

Killer T-cells

T-cells responsible for destroying cells during cell-mediated immunity

Helper T-cells

T-cells that produce "Lymphokines" that activate killer T-cells


protein responsible for cell-mediated immunity

B lymphocytes

lymphocytes that are processed in the bone marrow.
* produce Antibodies( "Anti-Bob's" )

humoral immunity

when the B-cell encounters the antigen it is programed against, it transforms into a plasma cell and releases antibodies


antibodies that plasma cells produce, store, and release

Natural killer cells

Lymphocytes that have the ability to kill some types of tumor cells and cells infected with certain viruses.

memory cells

clones of the original lymphocyte, survive in the lymphnoid tissue and wait for a second exposure to the same antigen.


an increased number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood.


a decreased number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood.

Lymphatic system

a series of vessels or ducts that carries excess tissue fluid to blood vessels near the heart so the fluid can be put back into the circulation (via *
Vena Cava).

four primary functions of the lymphatic system:

removes excess tissue fluid,waste material transport,filtration, and (works as) a protein transport mechanism.


Lymph from the digestive system

lymph nodes

small,kidney shaped structures located at various points of lymph vessels.


Has both lymphatic and hematological functions.
* largest organ associated with the lymphatic system

4 functions of the spleen

Blood storage (in red pulp), removal of foreign materials, removal of dead/ dying/ abnormal red blood cells, Lymphocyte cloning


surgical removal of the spleen.

white pulp

part of the spleen that contains localized areas of lymphoid tissue

red pulp

part of the spleen that contains blood vessels, tissue macrophages, and blood sinuses (storage)


Lymphoid organ that is very prominent in young animals and shrinks as animal matures.
* where T cells are processed before being sent out to the peripheral lymphoid tissue.


Nodules of lymphoid tissue that are not covered with a capsule.Most promanent in young animals
* Are not Lymph nodes!

3 ways tonsils differ from lymph nodes:

tonsils are; found close to moist epithelial surfaces, do not have a capsule, and found at the beginning of the lymph drainage system (not along the lymph vessels).


lymphoid tissue found in the lining of the small intestine.
* Classified as a central lymphatic tissue because it can process B cells; can function as peripheral tissue due to the large amount of lymphocytes it contains.

the major function of the immune system:

protects animals from anything that can cause damage or disease to the animal.


a life threatening allergic reaction/response
* is an example of immune mediated disease.

Nonspecific immunity

tissues, cells, and processes that protect an animal against anything that it recognizes as foreign

6 types of Nonspecific immunity:

protective barriers, inflammation, phagocytosis, Natural killer cells, "inferon", and "compliment"

specific immunity

a unique reaction aimed at destroying specific antigens.

two types of non specific immunity:

Cell-mediated immunity & Humoral immunity

Cell-mediated immunity

function of T cells that attach to antigens on the surface of foreign cells

Cytotoxic T cells (a.k.a. Killer T Cells)

attach to antigenic cells and destroy them

Helper T cells

help the immune response by secreting lymphokines into the surrounding tissue

Suppressor T cells

help provide a degree of control over the Cell-mediated & the Humoral imune responces

Humoral immunity

the function of B cells
* the B cells transform into Plasma cells (active B cells)


specific protective proteins that function against specific antigens

3 things that can happen when an antibody and antigen meet and join

the antigens: are transformed into harmless substances; become agglutinated (stuck together) to get phagocytized by macrophages; or alter in shape and eventually rupture

Immunoglobulin (or Ig)

another name for Antibodies

5 general types of Imunoglobin (or Ig)


Memory cells

inactive T or B cell "clones" that circulate the blood or stay in the lymphoid tissue to wait for a second infection by the same antigen

layer of the lymph node that contains T cells:


layer of the lymph node that contains macrophages:


Active immunity

activating an animals immune system against a particular antigen through the use of vaccines.
* forms memory T and B cells protecting against future disease

passive immunity

administering performed antibodies that were not produced by the animal's own immune system.
* does not make memory T or B cells and does not protect against future infection


first immunoglobin made during first exposure to an antigen


Immunoglobin made when an animal is exposed to an antigen for a long time or a second time


Immunoglobin that can leave blood and enter tissue fluids; plays a role in protecting mucosal surfaces (ex: intestinal tract and lungs)


Immunoglobin associated with an allergic responce


function is unknown

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording