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115 terms

Blood, Lymph, and Immunity v2 by Homer

version 2
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three main functions of blood:
transportation, regulation, and defense
Composition of blood
Plasma (liquid portion of blood), Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Thrombocytes
three regulation jobs of blood:
body temperature regulation, tissue fluid content regulation, and blood pH regulation
Whole blood
Blood contained in the cardiovascular system
Peripheral Blood
whole blood flowing through the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the heart.
hemoconcentration
less plasma in bloodstream so cells become more concentrated
hemodilution
excess fluid dilutes cells in blood
Blood functions as a defense system through the presence of _____ _____ ____?
White Blood Cells
Phagocytosis
allows damage to blood vessels to be controlled.
Erythrocyte (Red Blood Cell)
carry oxygen from lungs to cells and tissues.
* look like biconcave disks
Leukocyte (White Blood Cell)
provide defense from foreign invaders in the body.
* Granulocytic or Agranulocytic
Thrombocyte (Platelet)
help prevent leaks from damaged blood vessels
Hematopoiesis
the production of all blood cells
Erythropoiesis
the production of red blood cells
Leukopoisis
process of formation of white blood cells (leukocytes)
Thrombopoiesis
the production of platelets
types of Leukocytes:
Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophils, Monocytes, and Lymphocytes.
Eosiniphils
make up only 5% or less of total white blood cell count.
* often have a segmented nucleus that has only 2 lobes
Basophils
cell type that is least often seen in the circulation and therefore, least understood
Neutrophils
the most numerous white blood cell in the circulation of a dog, cat, or horse.
Band Neutrophil
Immature neutrophils that have a horseshoe nucleus w/out any segmentation
Monocytes
Largest cells in white blood cell category
* immature macrophages
Lymphocytes
the only white blood cell that doesn't have phagocytic abilities and does not mature in the bone marrow.
Two types of T lymphocytes (T-cells):
Killer T-cells & Helper T-cells
3 types of Lymphocytes:
T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, Natural killer cells
Plasma
fluid portion of the blood and is about 93% water. Also makes up the majority of the blood.
biconcave disc
shape used to describe a red blood cell
3 important functions of the biconcave disc shape:
Deformable (but not elastic), provides more membrane surface, and a shorter diffusion distance.
Function of a mature red blood cell?
carries oxygen to all parts of the body
hemoglobin
protein in red blood cells that binds with oxygen
Two components that make up Hemoglobin:
"Heme" & "Globin"
Heme
pigment portion produced in mitochondria
* contains iron
Globin
protein produced by ribosomes
how many oxygen molecules can each Hemoglobin molecule carry?
4 oxygen molecules
two physiological states of Hemoglobin?
Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin
Oxyhemoglobin
hemoglobin carrying oxygen
Deoxyhemoglobin
hemoglobin that has given up its oxygen
How is carbon dioxide transported?
By transforming into carbonic acid.
Senescence
The process of aging
extravascular hemolysis
the breaking down of old red blood cells outside of the circulation by macrophages.
Bilirubin
what "leftover" heme is converted into before it is removed from the body
intravascular hemolysis
destruction that takes place within the blood vessels
haptoglobin
protein that transports hemoglobin to macrophages during intravascular hemolysis
Anemia
decreased ability to carry oxygen to the blood.
two major abnormalities that cause anemia:
low number of mature blood cells circulating, not enough hemoglobin being produced.
Polycythemia
abnormal increase of red blood cells
Relative Polycythemia
occurs with loss of loss of fluid from the blood or hemoconcentration.
*occurs in dehydrated animals
Compensatory Polycythemia
low levels of oxygen cause an increased production of red blood cells stimulated through the bone marrow. *result of hypoxia
Polycythemia rubra vera
rare bone marrow disease, charecterized by an increased production of red blood cells for an unknown reason.
Granulocytes
cells named for the color of the granules in their cytoplasm when viewed on a stained smear.
three cell types included in the Granulocyte group
neutrophils, eosinifils, basophils
Granulopoiesis
formation of Granulocytes
diapedesis
process in which neutraphils and other white blood cells leave the circulation
Chemotaxis
process in which neutrophils are attracted to a site of infection
Opsonins
plasma protein that usually contains a specific antibody
Opsonization
process in which allows a neutraphil to recognize a microorganism as a foreign invader.
the 2 pools of neutraphils found in peripheral blood:
circulating pools and marginal pools
circulating pools
nutriphils within the lumen of blood vessels
marginal pools
line the walls of small blood vessels in the spleen, lungs, and abdominal organs.
Mast Cells
share some common characteristics with Basophils
two granules present in Basophils:
histamine and heparin
Agranulocytes
cells that do not have specific staining granules in their cytoplasm.
two cell types included in the Agranulocyte group:
Monocytes and Lymphocytes
Histomine
helps initiate inflamation and allergic reactions
Heparin
Acts as a localized anticoagulent to keep blood flowing to an injured or damaged
Macrophages
clean up cellular debris, ingest antigens and present them to lymphocytes (B-cells and T-cells) to destroy the antigen, and ingest foreign substances
T lymphocytes (T-cells)
lymphocytes that are processed in the thymus, but found in the blood
Killer T-cells
T-cells responsible for destroying cells during cell-mediated immunity
Helper T-cells
T-cells that produce "Lymphokines" that activate killer T-cells
lymphokines
protein responsible for cell-mediated immunity
B lymphocytes
lymphocytes that are processed in the bone marrow.
* produce Antibodies( "Anti-Bob's" )
humoral immunity
when the B-cell encounters the antigen it is programed against, it transforms into a plasma cell and releases antibodies
Immunoglobins
antibodies that plasma cells produce, store, and release
Natural killer cells
Lymphocytes that have the ability to kill some types of tumor cells and cells infected with certain viruses.
memory cells
clones of the original lymphocyte, survive in the lymphnoid tissue and wait for a second exposure to the same antigen.
lymphocytosis
an increased number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood.
lymphopenia
a decreased number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood.
Lymphatic system
a series of vessels or ducts that carries excess tissue fluid to blood vessels near the heart so the fluid can be put back into the circulation (via *
Vena Cava).
four primary functions of the lymphatic system:
removes excess tissue fluid,waste material transport,filtration, and (works as) a protein transport mechanism.
Chyle
Lymph from the digestive system
lymph nodes
small,kidney shaped structures located at various points of lymph vessels.
spleen
Has both lymphatic and hematological functions.
* largest organ associated with the lymphatic system
4 functions of the spleen
Blood storage (in red pulp), removal of foreign materials, removal of dead/ dying/ abnormal red blood cells, Lymphocyte cloning
Splenectomy
surgical removal of the spleen.
white pulp
part of the spleen that contains localized areas of lymphoid tissue
red pulp
part of the spleen that contains blood vessels, tissue macrophages, and blood sinuses (storage)
Thymus
Lymphoid organ that is very prominent in young animals and shrinks as animal matures.
* where T cells are processed before being sent out to the peripheral lymphoid tissue.
Tonsils
Nodules of lymphoid tissue that are not covered with a capsule.Most promanent in young animals
* Are not Lymph nodes!
3 ways tonsils differ from lymph nodes:
tonsils are; found close to moist epithelial surfaces, do not have a capsule, and found at the beginning of the lymph drainage system (not along the lymph vessels).
GALT
lymphoid tissue found in the lining of the small intestine.
* Classified as a central lymphatic tissue because it can process B cells; can function as peripheral tissue due to the large amount of lymphocytes it contains.
the major function of the immune system:
protects animals from anything that can cause damage or disease to the animal.
Anaphylaxis
a life threatening allergic reaction/response
* is an example of immune mediated disease.
Nonspecific immunity
tissues, cells, and processes that protect an animal against anything that it recognizes as foreign
6 types of Nonspecific immunity:
protective barriers, inflammation, phagocytosis, Natural killer cells, "inferon", and "compliment"
specific immunity
a unique reaction aimed at destroying specific antigens.
two types of non specific immunity:
Cell-mediated immunity & Humoral immunity
Cell-mediated immunity
function of T cells that attach to antigens on the surface of foreign cells
Cytotoxic T cells (a.k.a. Killer T Cells)
attach to antigenic cells and destroy them
Helper T cells
help the immune response by secreting lymphokines into the surrounding tissue
Suppressor T cells
help provide a degree of control over the Cell-mediated & the Humoral imune responces
Humoral immunity
the function of B cells
* the B cells transform into Plasma cells (active B cells)
Antibodies
specific protective proteins that function against specific antigens
3 things that can happen when an antibody and antigen meet and join
the antigens: are transformed into harmless substances; become agglutinated (stuck together) to get phagocytized by macrophages; or alter in shape and eventually rupture
Immunoglobulin (or Ig)
another name for Antibodies
5 general types of Imunoglobin (or Ig)
IgG;IgM;IgA;IgE;IgD
Memory cells
inactive T or B cell "clones" that circulate the blood or stay in the lymphoid tissue to wait for a second infection by the same antigen
layer of the lymph node that contains T cells:
cortex
layer of the lymph node that contains macrophages:
medulla
Active immunity
activating an animals immune system against a particular antigen through the use of vaccines.
* forms memory T and B cells protecting against future disease
passive immunity
administering performed antibodies that were not produced by the animal's own immune system.
* does not make memory T or B cells and does not protect against future infection
IgG
first immunoglobin made during first exposure to an antigen
IgM
Immunoglobin made when an animal is exposed to an antigen for a long time or a second time
IgA
Immunoglobin that can leave blood and enter tissue fluids; plays a role in protecting mucosal surfaces (ex: intestinal tract and lungs)
IgE
Immunoglobin associated with an allergic responce
IgD
function is unknown