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three regulation jobs of blood:
body temperature regulation, tissue fluid content regulation, and blood pH regulation
whole blood flowing through the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the heart.
Erythrocyte (Red Blood Cell)
carry oxygen from lungs to cells and tissues.
* look like biconcave disks
Leukocyte (White Blood Cell)
provide defense from foreign invaders in the body.
* Granulocytic or Agranulocytic
make up only 5% or less of total white blood cell count.
* often have a segmented nucleus that has only 2 lobes
the only white blood cell that doesn't have phagocytic abilities and does not mature in the bone marrow.
3 important functions of the biconcave disc shape:
Deformable (but not elastic), provides more membrane surface, and a shorter diffusion distance.
the breaking down of old red blood cells outside of the circulation by macrophages.
two major abnormalities that cause anemia:
low number of mature blood cells circulating, not enough hemoglobin being produced.
occurs with loss of loss of fluid from the blood or hemoconcentration.
*occurs in dehydrated animals
low levels of oxygen cause an increased production of red blood cells stimulated through the bone marrow. *result of hypoxia
Polycythemia rubra vera
rare bone marrow disease, charecterized by an increased production of red blood cells for an unknown reason.
cells named for the color of the granules in their cytoplasm when viewed on a stained smear.
process in which allows a neutraphil to recognize a microorganism as a foreign invader.
clean up cellular debris, ingest antigens and present them to lymphocytes (B-cells and T-cells) to destroy the antigen, and ingest foreign substances
lymphocytes that are processed in the bone marrow.
* produce Antibodies( "Anti-Bob's" )
when the B-cell encounters the antigen it is programed against, it transforms into a plasma cell and releases antibodies
Natural killer cells
Lymphocytes that have the ability to kill some types of tumor cells and cells infected with certain viruses.
clones of the original lymphocyte, survive in the lymphnoid tissue and wait for a second exposure to the same antigen.
a series of vessels or ducts that carries excess tissue fluid to blood vessels near the heart so the fluid can be put back into the circulation (via *
four primary functions of the lymphatic system:
removes excess tissue fluid,waste material transport,filtration, and (works as) a protein transport mechanism.
Has both lymphatic and hematological functions.
* largest organ associated with the lymphatic system
4 functions of the spleen
Blood storage (in red pulp), removal of foreign materials, removal of dead/ dying/ abnormal red blood cells, Lymphocyte cloning
part of the spleen that contains blood vessels, tissue macrophages, and blood sinuses (storage)
Lymphoid organ that is very prominent in young animals and shrinks as animal matures.
* where T cells are processed before being sent out to the peripheral lymphoid tissue.
Nodules of lymphoid tissue that are not covered with a capsule.Most promanent in young animals
* Are not Lymph nodes!
3 ways tonsils differ from lymph nodes:
tonsils are; found close to moist epithelial surfaces, do not have a capsule, and found at the beginning of the lymph drainage system (not along the lymph vessels).
lymphoid tissue found in the lining of the small intestine.
* Classified as a central lymphatic tissue because it can process B cells; can function as peripheral tissue due to the large amount of lymphocytes it contains.
the major function of the immune system:
protects animals from anything that can cause damage or disease to the animal.
a life threatening allergic reaction/response
* is an example of immune mediated disease.
tissues, cells, and processes that protect an animal against anything that it recognizes as foreign
6 types of Nonspecific immunity:
protective barriers, inflammation, phagocytosis, Natural killer cells, "inferon", and "compliment"
Suppressor T cells
help provide a degree of control over the Cell-mediated & the Humoral imune responces
3 things that can happen when an antibody and antigen meet and join
the antigens: are transformed into harmless substances; become agglutinated (stuck together) to get phagocytized by macrophages; or alter in shape and eventually rupture
inactive T or B cell "clones" that circulate the blood or stay in the lymphoid tissue to wait for a second infection by the same antigen
activating an animals immune system against a particular antigen through the use of vaccines.
* forms memory T and B cells protecting against future disease
administering performed antibodies that were not produced by the animal's own immune system.
* does not make memory T or B cells and does not protect against future infection
Immunoglobin that can leave blood and enter tissue fluids; plays a role in protecting mucosal surfaces (ex: intestinal tract and lungs)
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