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Psych 111: chapter 3
Terms in this set (96)
process by which traits become more or less common in a population across successive generations
What is the mechanism of evolution?
differences among individuals within a population
traits are passed from parent to offspring
certain variants survive and reproduce at higher rates than others
What are consequences to evolution?
Adaption: evolved solutions to problems
genetic effects on behavior and thought
Environment (non genetic) effects on behavior and thought
"predetermined", humans acquire traits from genetic endowment
"blank slate," views humans as acquiring traits from environment and experience
Monozygotic (identical) twins
When one zygote splits for unknown reasons. Share 100% genes.
Dizygotic (Fraternal) twins
When there are two eggs fertilized simultaneously. Share 50% genes.
The ways in which a person's genotype is manifested in OBSERVABLE characteristics. CAN change over time and be modified by the environment
A person's genetic makeup. Different genotypes can yield the same phenotype. Hh=heterozygous
The reproductive success (number of descendants) of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success in the population
An inherited characteristic that increases in a population (through natural selection) because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged. Physical and/or behavioral.
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate and transmit information
What are the key parts of neurons?
soma (cell body)
contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.
parts of a neuron, branching structures, that are specialized to receive information.
a long, thin fiber that transmits signals AWAY from the soma to other neurons or to muscles and glands.
Insulating material that encases some axons
small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
Junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another
Cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neuors
Resting potential of a neuron
stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive
voltage spike that travels along axon
Absolute refractory period
brief time after an action potential before another action potential can begin
The all-or-none law
either the neuron fires or it doesnt
chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
Postsynaptic potential (PSP)
A voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane. Do NOT follow all-or-none law.
positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potential.
negative voltage shift that decreases the likelihood that postsynaptic neurons will fire action potentials.
strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information
the study of heritable changes in the gene expression that do not involve modifications to the DNA sequence
characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes
claims that heritable characteristics that prove a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time
A single cell formed by the union of a sperm and an egg.
a process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane
-released by motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles.
-contributes to the regulation of attention, arousal and memory.
-Some receptors are stimulated by nicotine.
-Disorders: Alzheimer's disease
-Contributes to control of voluntary movement
-cocaine and amphetamines elevate activity at DA synapses
-circuits in medial forebrain bundle "reward pathway"
-Disorders: parkinsons, schizophrenic disorders and addictive disorders
-contributes to modulation of mood and arousal
-cocaine and amphetamines elevate activity at NE synapses
-Involved in regulation of sleep an wakefulness, aggression
-prozac and antidepressant drugs affect serotonin circuits
-Disorders: Depressive, OCD and eating disorders
-Serves as widely distributed inhibitory transmitter, contributing to regulation of anxiety and sleep/arousal
-Disorders: Anxiety disorders
-Serves as widely distributed excitatory transmitter
-Involved in learning and memor
-Resemble opiate drugs in structure and effects
-Play role in pain relief and response to stress
-contribute to regulation of eating behavior
Chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
ex: ACh (acetylcholine)
Chemical that opposes the action of a transmitter
What are monamines?
Dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.
peripheral nervous system
Made up of all the nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord. composed of two primary systems: somatic and autonomic
bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are routed together in the Peripheral nervous system
somatic nervous system
made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors
afferent nerve fibers
INCOMING nerves involved in the somatic nervous system
efferent nerve fibers
OUTGOING nerves involved in the somatic nervous system
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
made up of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands. Controls a lot of psychological emotions (fight-or-flight).
-Can be divided into two branches: sympathetic and parasympathetic
Sympathetic division of ANS
branch that mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies. Creates the Fight-or-flight responses.
-Lessens bleeding in injuries
Parasympathetic division of ANS
branch that generally conserves bodily resources.
-activates processes that allow the body to save and store energy.
device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp.
-Uses: clinical diagnosis of brain damage, epilepsy, and other neurological disorders
involves destroying a piece of the brain by inserting an electrode deep inside the brain. Great help with research.
Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)
involves sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate it. Mostly used on animals but sometimes used during brain surgery to see where to NOT cut.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
new technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain. Magnetic coil creates a field.
-Allows scientists to do "virtual lesions" to learn more about the specific areas of the brain
CT (computerized tomography) scan
computer enhanced x-ray of brain structure. uses multiple x-rays to generate a picture of a horizontal slice of the brain
-Uses: look for abnormalities in brain and mental illnesses, especially schizophrenia
PET (positron emission tomography) scan
can examine brain function, mapping actual ACTIVITY in the brain over time.
-Radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain. They serve as markers of blood flow which can be monitored with x-rays.
-Uses: how the brain is affected with different movements, drugs, etc.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan
uses magnetic fields, radio waves, and computerized enhancement to map out brain structure. Produces 3-d images of the brain with high resolution
-uses: depressive disorders
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)
new variation of MRI that monitors blood flow and oxygen consumption in the brain to identify areas of high ACTIVITY
includes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brain stem: medulla and the pons.
attaches to the spinal cord and controls largely unconscious but vital functions, including circulating blood, breathing, maintaining muscle tone, and regulating reflexes.
includes a bridge of fibers that connects the brainstem with the cerebellum. Also contains several clusters of cell bodies involved with SLEEP and AROUSAL.
Cerebellum (small brain)
A relatively large and deeply folded structure located next to the back surface of the brain stem.
-Critical to the coordination of movement, fine motor skills and to physical balance. As well as attention, planning and visual perception.
Segment of the brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain
-Integrates SENSORY processes such as vision and hearing. Dopamine releasing neurons originates in the midbrain
runs through both the hindbrain and the midbrain
-contributes to the modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing and pain perception. Plays a big role in the regulation of sleep and arousal
Largest and most complex region of the brain, encompassing a variety of structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system and cerebrum.
structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cotex
structure found near the base of the forebrain, under the thalamus, that's involved in the REGULATION OF BASIC BIOLOGICAL NEEDS, hunger/thirst/sex, and controls ANS
loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas. contributes to EMOTION, memory, and motivation/ pleasure centers
Plays major role in MEMORY processes
plays a central role in the learning of fear responses and the processing of other basic EMOTIONAL responses
structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
The intricately folded outer layer of the cerebrum. Divided into two hemispheres. Then each hemisphere is divided into four lobes.
Located at the back of the head. Includes the cortical area where most visual signs are sent and visual processing begins. (PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX)
In front of the occipital lobe. Includes the area that registers the sense of touch (PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX)
Temporal lobe (near the temple)
Below the parietal lobe. Includes area devoted to auditory processing (PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX)
The largest lobe in the human brain. Contains the principal areas that control the movement of muscles (PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX)
neurons found in the frontal lobe that are activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or person perform the same action
the formation of new neurons
Central nervous system
Brain and spine
-consists of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream in a pulsatile fashion
-governed by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
-regulates digestion, response to stress,and sexual development
split brain surgery
when the corpus callosum that connects the two hemispheres is severed
left-right imbalances in speed of processing are studied in normal subjects
usually handles verbal processing, including LANGUAGE, speech, reading and writing
usually handles NONverbal processing, including visual-spatial and musical tasks, and the perception of others' emotions
Cells found in the nervous system that insulate, nourish, and direct the growth of neurons as well as remove
dead neurons and waste products are known as
an organ that produces gametes; a testis or ovary.
The appearance of secondary sex characteristics is the responsibility of hormones secreted by the gonads
The lens in the eye..
bends entering light rays and focuses them onto the retina
characterized as the "reward pathway" that is believed to be responsible for
the reinforcing effects of most abused drugs.
a chromosome contains thousands of genes
Recommended textbook explanations
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Richard A. Kasschau
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
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