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27 terms

Organ Systems: Structure and Function

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Liver
Large organ just above the stomach that produces bile
Alveoli
Tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
Thyroid
Produces thyroxine, which regulates metabolism throughout the body.
Kidneys
Removes urea, excess water, and other waste products.
Trachea
windpipe; tube through which air moves
Pulmonary Circulation
pathway of circulation between the heart and the lungs
Hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
Heart
The hollow muscular organ located behind the sternum and between the lungs. 4 Chambers: Right and Left and Right Ventricles and Atriums.
Spleen
Helps cleanse the blood, removes damaged blood cells from the circulatory system, and stores lymphocytes that engulf and destroy bacteria.
Seminiferous Tubules
Narrow, coiled tubules that produce sperm in the testes.
Skeletal Muscles
Muscles attached to bones that enable you to move voluntarily.
Epidermis
The outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
Pancreas
A digestive gland whose enzyme secretions help break down food and secretes insulin and glucagon, which helps keep the level of the glucose in the blood stable.
Small Intestine
The part of the digestive system in which most chemical digestion and absorption takes place.
muscle, nervous, connective, and epithelial
Four basic types of tissue in the human body
Neurons
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive (sensory neurons), integrate (interneurons), and transmit (motor neurons) information.
Haversian Canals
tubes running through compact bone; contain blood vessels and nerves
Red Marrow
makes red blood cells, White Blood Cells, and Platelets.
ovaries
located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone. The female gonad that produces eggs.
actin
protein that mainly makes up the thin filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells
Arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Veins
carry blood to the heart
keratin
tough, fibrous protein found in skin
muscle tissue
a body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move
epithelial tissue
tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines internal organs
nervous tissue
transmits nerve impulses throughout the body
connective tissue
a body tissue that provides support for the body and connects all of its parts