76 terms

Social Psychology Midterm III Vocabulary

STUDY
PLAY
conformity
a change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure
compliance
conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request while privately disagreeing
obedience
acting in accord with a direct order or command
acceptance
conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure
autokinetic phenomenon
the apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark
cohesiveness
a "we feeling"; the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction for one another
normative influence
conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptance
informational influence
conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people
reactance
a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom; arises when someone threatens our freedom of action
group
two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as "us"
co-actors
cooperating participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity
social facilitation
the strengthening of dominant, prevalent, or likely responses in the presence of others
evaluation apprehension
concern for how others are judging us
social loafing
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable
free riders
people who benefit from the group but give little in return
deindividuation
loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad
group polarization
group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group
social comparison
evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others
pluralistic ignorance
a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding
groupthink
the mode of thinking people engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so strong in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic judgment of other option
leadership
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
task leadership
leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals
social leadership
leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
transformational leadership
leadership that exerts significant influence inspired by a leader's vision and inspiration
prejudice
a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members
stereotype
a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people; sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information
discrimination
unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members
racism
(1) an individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race, or (2) institutional practices that subordinate people of a given race, even if not intended to do so
sexism
(1) an individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex, or (2) institutional practices that subordinate people of a given sex, even if not intended to do so
social dominance orientation
a motivation to have one's group dominate other social groups
ethnocentric
believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups
authoritarian personality
a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status
realistic group conflict theory
the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources
social identity
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that arises from our group memberships
ingroup
"us"-- a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity
outgroup
"them"-- a group that people perceive as distinctly different from or apart from their ingroup
terror management
people's self-protective emotional and cognitive responses when confronted with reminders of their mortality, including a stronger adherence to their cultural worldviews and prejudices
outgroup homogeneity effect
perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members
own-race bias
the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race
stigma consciousness
a person's expectation of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination
group-serving bias
explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group)
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe that the world is fair and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
subtyping
accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as "the exceptions to the rule"
subgrouping
accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group
stereotype threat
a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
need to belong
a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions
proximity
geographical nearness; powerfully predicts liking
mere exposure effect
the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them
matching phenomenon
the tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a "good match" in attractiveness and other traits
physical attractiveness stereotype
the presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well
complementarity
the popularly supposed tendency, in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other
ingratiation
the use of strategies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another's favor
reward theory of attraction
the theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events
passionate love
a state of intense longing for union with another; marked by a couple's absorption with each other, ecstatic feelings associated with one another's love, and worry about losing it
two-factor theory of emotion
arousal x its label = emotion
companionate love
the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined
secure attachment
attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy
preoccupied attachment
attachments marked by a sense of one's own unworthiness and anxiety, ambivalence, and possessiveness
dismissive attachment
an avoidant relationship style marked by distrust of others
fearful attachment
an avoidant relationship style marked by fear of rejection
equity
a condition in which the outcomes people receive from a relationship are proportional to what they contribute to it
self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
disclosure reciprocity
the tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner
social categorization
the automatic cognitive process of placing people into groups based on their personal characteristics (such as age, race, or religion)
BIRG
Basking In Reflected Glory, or identifying oneself with a group that's been successful
illusory correlation
overestimating the strength of the relationship between two distinctive events
foot-in-the-door technique
the target agrees to a small request in the beginning, and then a larger request later
door-in-the-face technique
the target refuses a large request, but then agrees to a subsequent smaller request
that's-not-all technique
the target is offered a deal as well as an extra addition
lowballing
an initial agreement is made by the target, but the persuader later adds to the cost of the agreement
bait and switch
an initial commitment is made, but the option becomes unavailable, leading the target to accept a more costly offer
labeling
a person is knowingly placed into a category, and then the person agrees to a request that is consistent with that categorization
koro
a form of mass hysteria that takes place periodically in the Middle East where people believe ghosts can cause the shrinking of male genitalia
ultimate attribution error
the tendency to attribute negative behavior of minorities to their dispositions, and the positive behavior of minorities to the situation
production blocking
failure of members to express ideas due to the norm that only one person talks at a time
brainstorming
a process in which group members are encouraged to produce as many ideas as possible in an uninhibited way