22 terms

Civil liberties: Proecting Individual Rights

Ch 20
due process
(law) the administration of justice according to established rules and principles
substantive due process
Constitutional requirement that governments act reasonably and that the substance of the laws themselves be fair and reasonable; limits what a government may do.
procedural due process
Constitutional requirement that governments proceed by proper methods; limits how government may exercise power.
police power
state power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals
search warrant
a warrant authorizing law enforcement officials to search for objects or people involved in the commission of a crime and to produce them in court
involuntary servitude
forced labor
unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice
writs of assistance
legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled
probable cause
(law) evidence sufficient to warrant an arrest or search and seizure
exclusionary rule
evidence gained as the result of an illegal act by police cannot be used against the person from whom it was seized
writ of habeas corpus
A court order which prevents unjust arrests and imprisonments
bill of attainder
A legislative act that inflicts punishment without a court trial
ex posto facto law
a law applied to an act committed before its passage
grand jury
the formal device by which a person can be accused of a serious crime
A formal complaint before a grand jury which charges the accused with one or more crimes.
double jeopardy
part of the 5th Amendment which says that no person can be put in jeopardy of life or limb twice. Once a person has been tried for a crime, he or she cannot be tried again for the same crime
bench trial
a trial in which the judge alone hears the case
Miranda rule
The constitutional rights which police must read to a suspect before questioning can occur.
a sum of money that the accused may be required to post as a guarantee that he or she will appear in court at the proper time
preventive detention
a law which allows federal judges to order that an accused felon be held, without bail, when there is good reason to believe that he or she will commit yet another serious crime before trial
capital punishment
the death penalty
betrayal of one's country; in the Constitution, by levying war against the United States or offering comfort or aid to its enemies