ziegler vocab

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

soluble
capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)
insoluble
not able to dissolve
solution
-a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
-contains a solute (the dissolved substance)(smaller)
-contain solvent (the dissolving substance) (larger)
-contains very small (NONE) particles (ions or molecules) that are uniformly dispersed in the solvent
-NOT separated by filters OR a semipermeable membrane
solvent
LARGER
-liquid substance that dissolves other substances
solute
SMALLER
-dissolved substance in a solution
-can be separated by evaporation
-aren't visible but can give color to solution
-cannot be separated by filtration
-spread evenly throughout solution
electrolyte
-a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current
STRONG
-dissociate in water
-produce ions in water
-conduct strong current
WEAK
-dissolve mostly as molecules in water
-produce few ions in water
conduct weak current
non electrolyte
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electric current
-dissolve as molecules in water
-don't produce ions in water
saturated solution
-contains the MAXIMUM amount of solute that can dissolve
-have undissolved solute at bottom of container
-have equal rates at which solute dissolved and crystallizes
unsaturated solution
-contains LESS solute than the max amount of solute
-can dissolve more solute
solubility
-the max amount of solute that dissolves in a specific amount of solvent
-can be expressed as grams of solute in 100 grams of solvent, usually water
dilution
water added, volume increases, concentration decreases
M1xV1=MfVf
concentration
strengthening the concentration (as of a solute in a mixture) by removing extraneous material
molarity (M)
-concentration term for solutions
-used for colligative properties
-the moles of solute in 1 L of solution
(AKA molar concentration)
M=mol of solute/L of solution
molality
the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
(italicized M)= mol/Kg
mass percent (m/m)
the percent by mass of a component of a mixture or of a given element in a compound
(mass of solute / mass of solution) x 100%
volume percent (v/v)
-a percent concentration that relates the volume of the solute to the volume of the solution
(volume of solute / volume of solution) x 100%
suspensions
-Mixtures of water and nondissolved material
-have very LARGE particles that settle out
-ARE separated by filters
-must be stirred to stay suspended
EX: (blood platelets, muddy water, calamine lotion)
colloids
-contain SMALL solute particles that are uniformly dispersed in the solvent
-CANT be separated by filtration
-CAN be separated by semipermeable membranes
(eventually going to be solutions, but just look like suspensions for a while)
(state in between solution and suspension)
molal freezing point constant
the freezing point depression of the solvent in a 1-molal solution (Kf) (water= 1.86)
molal boiling point constant
the boiling point elevation of the solvent in a 1 molal solution (Kb) (water= .52)
freezing point depression
-colligative property of a solution
-the difference between the freezing points of a pure solvent and a solution of a non electrolyte in that solvent (ΔTf = KfM)
boiling point elevation
the difference between the boiling points of a pure solvent and a solution of a non electrolyte in that solvent (ΔTb= KbM)
PH and pOH
PH of a solution=negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion (-log[H3O])

POH= the negative of the common logarithm of the hydroxide ion (-log[OH-])

pOH+PH= 14
pOH= 14-pOH
acidic solution
(H3O+)>(OH-)
PH<7
basic solution
(H3O+)<(OH-)
PH>7
neutral solution
(H3O+)=(OH-)
PH=7
hydronium ion
(H3O+)
hydroxide ion
(OH-)
self ionization of water
when 2 water molecules produce a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion
ionization constant of water:
Kw=(H3O+)+(OH-) = 1.0 x 10[-14] M[2]
factors that affect the solution process
-increase the surface area of the solute
-agitate the solution
-heat the solution
-soluble and insoluble salts
soluble
a substance capable of being disolved
insoluble
incapable of being dissolved
solution
a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase
solvent
a substance that does the dissolving
pOH
-log [OH-]
nonelectrolyte
the only molecules remaining in an aqueous solution
dilution
process where water is added to change the concentration
suspensions
particles visible when solution is not agitated
molality
the number of moles of solute dissolved in each kilogram of solvent
insoluble
a substance incapable of being dissolved
solubility
the amount of a solute that will dissolve in a specific solvent under given conditions
boiling point elevation
ΔTb=Kb*m
unsaturated
when a smaller amount of solute has been dissolved into a solution
polarity
measures unequal sharing of electrons
polar covalent bond
the unequal attraction for shared electrons in a covalent bond
deposition
a gas changes directly to a solid
condensation
a gas changes to a liquid
dipole- dipole attraction
interaction between the positive end of a polar molecule and the negative end of another
nonpolar covalent bond
equal sharing of valence electrons by 2 atoms
sublimation
dry ice in an ice cream cart changes to a gas
multiple bond
the sharing of 2 or 3 pairs of electrons by 2 atoms
dispersion factors
results from momentary polarization of nonpolar molecules