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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Interstitial fluid volume = in between cells?
  2. Body weight normal is ____ Body weight current before patient was volume depleted
  3. when treating Hypovolemic Hypotonic Hyponatremia with Diuretics, what has to be considered?
  4. Hypertonic, can be defined as?
  5. ratio of water to Na+, are related to what abnormality?
  1. a 3/4 ECFV
  2. b 15%
  3. c -Loop diuretics: proportional loss of Na+ and water (don't become hyponatremic!)
    -Thiazides: more Na+ loss than water (high chance of having a low serum Na)
  4. d -ECF sodium concentration (hypernatremia vs. hyponatremia) are due to problems with water control mechanisms
  5. e -solutes outside-more water inside cells and cells shrink-brain can shrink and cause damage

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. -Indicated for hypervolemic or euvolemic hyponatremia
    -Conivaptan (Vaprisol®): Non-selective V1A and V2 receptor antagonist; IV only
    -Tolvaptan (Samsca®): Selective V2 receptor antagonist; oral only also approved in patients with SIADH (but not first line option)
  2. -Correct hypercalcemia and hypokalemia
    -Create mild ECFVd with thiazide diuretic and dietary Na+ restriction ↓ urine volume
    -Indomethacin 50 mg po tid (increase sensitivity to ADH)
    -Amiloride 5 - 10 mg po daily (lithium induced DI, antagonizes Li effects on kidney tubules)
  3. 2/3 TBW
  4. -Ability of combined effect of all solutes to generate osmotic driving force that causes H2O movement from one compartment to another (if osmolality is high in EC-compartment, compared to what's inside cells, will be hypertonic)
  5. -Cases of abnormal ECFV size (hypervolemia vs. hypovolemia) are due to problems with the sodium control mechanism

5 True/False questions

  1. what is the treatment goal when Hypovolemic Hypotonic Hyponatremia is being treated?-Administer 0.9% NaCl at 200 - 400 ml/h until symptoms of hypovolemia improve, then lower to 100 - 150 ml/h (calculate volume deficit)
    -No greater than 12 mEq/L/day increase in serum Na+
    -Monitor serum Na+ q2-4h, signs of hypovolemia, volume overload


  2. Plasma/intravascular volume (vessels where blood is)1/4 ECFV


  3. Extracellular fluid volume (ECFV= outside cells) ?1/3 TBW


  4. Serum osmolality (calculated) (serum=blood in vessels) is calculated using what equation?1/4 ECFV


  5. Central diabetes insipidus (causes high Na+) can be defined as?-Absence or deficiency of ADH leading to excessive renal water loss and hypernatremia, urinate a lot = causing high [Na] hypernatremia
    -TCA-antidepressants = cause SIADH commonly