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Middle Class

A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers

Adam Smith

Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"


an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit


groups of individuals authorized by law to act as a single entity; a business owned by many investors

Thomas Malthus

Author of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growth would outpace food production.


People who work to improve the conditions of others


doctrine that the useful is the good Ex. especially as elaborated by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill; the aim was said to be the greatest happiness for the greatest number.


An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.

Karl Marx

Founder of modern communism Ex. wrote the Communist Manifesto with Engels in 1848 (1818-1883)


A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.


A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

Michael Faraday

the English physicist and chemist who discovered electromagnetic induction (1791-1867)

Thomas Edison

American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.

Marconi & Bell

(Macroni) Italian that developed a way to send messages thriugh space without wires. (Bell) American inventor that made the telephone.

Cell Theory

The theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms

Charles Darwin

English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.

Gregor Mendel

Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)

Edward Jenner

English physician who pioneered vaccination (smallpox vaccine)

Louis Pasteur

French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)

Joseph Lister

English surgeon who was the first to use antiseptics (1827-1912)

Dmitry Mendeleyev

Russian Chemist that made the first workable classification of the elements

Wilhelm Rontgen

German physicist who discovered X rays

Pierre & Marie Curie

A French husband-and-wife team of chemists who provided new evidence that atoms were not the simple, indivisible particles pictured by earlier scientists. They experimented with the elements uranium and radium. They found that the atoms of these elements constantly disintegrated and released energy on their own (radioactivity).


Physicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity


The scientific study of the origins, cultural development, and customs of human beings


the study and classification of human societies

Sigmund Freud

Austrian neurologist who studied dreams


Iron pipes, streetlights, flush toilets, etc.

Public Order

law enforcement


Less crowded than the city and made a need for public transit

Food & Preservation

pasturization, refrigeration, canning of food

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