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Chapter 13

Communication
STUDY
PLAY
Public speaking
Differs from casual interaction in two primary ways (1) public speeches tend to involve more planning and preparation that informal conversations (2) public speaking is less interactive; speakers must learn to adapt to audience's feedback
Speech to entertain
The primary objective is to engage, interest, amuse, or please listeners
Speech to inform
The primary goal of increasing listeners' understanding, awareness, or knowledge of some topic
Speech to persuade
Aims to change listeners' attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors or to motivate them to take some action; persuasive goals are to influence attitudes, to change practices, and to alter beliefs
Credibility
Exists when listeners believe in a speaker and trust what the speaker says; based on listeners' perceptions of a speaker's position, authority, knowledge (expertise), dynamism, and trustworthiness (character)
Initial credibility
Exists when listeners believe in a speaker and trust what the speaker says; based on listeners' perceptions of a speaker's position, authority, knowledge (expertise), dynamism, and trustworthiness (character)
Derived credibility
Listeners grant as a result of how speakers communicate during presentation, may be earned by providing clear, well-organized information and convincing evidence
Terminal credibility
Is a cumulative combination of initial and derived credibility; may be greater or less than initial credibility, depending on how effectively a speaker has communicated
Select a topic
A topic speakers care about, appropriate to listeners, to situation, and are limited in scope
Speaking purpose
Define your general and specific purposes; generally purpose is to entertain, inform, or persuade
Specific purpose
Is exactly what you want to accomplish
Thesis statement
The most important sentence in a speech that states the main idea of the entire speech, guides an effective speech, summarizes the focus of each speech
Introduction
Gains listeners' attention, give them a reason to listen, establish the credibility of the speaker, state the thesis, provide them a motive to listen
Body
Develops that thesis by organizing content into points that are distinct yet related
Chronological patterns
Organize ideas chronologically, emphasize progression, sequences, or development
Spatial patterns
Organize ideas according to physical relationships, useful in explaining layouts, geographic relationships, or connections between parts of a system
Topical patterns
Order speech content into categories or areas; pattern useful for speeches in which topic break down into two or three areas that aren't related temporally, spatially, or otherwise
Star structure
Is a variation on the topical pattern has several main points that are related and work together to develop the main idea of a speech
Wave patterns
Feature repetitions; each "wave" repeats the main theme with variations or extensions
Comparative patterns
Feature repetitions; each "wave" repeats the main theme with variations or extensions
Problem-solution patterns
Allow speakers to describe a problem and propose a solution
Cause-effect patterns
Order speech content into two main points: cause and effect, structure is useful for persuasive speeches that aim to convince listeners that certain consequences will follow from particular actions
Motivated sequence pattern
Effective in diverse communication situations, because follows natural order of human though, includes: attention step (focuses listeners' attention), need step (show problem actually exists), satisfactory step (speaker recommends a solution), visualization (intensifies listeners' commitment to solution by helping them imagine results that the recommended solution would achieve), action step (speaker appeals to listeners to take concrete action to realize the recommended solution)
Conclusion
Speaker's last chance to emphasize ideas, increase credibility, and gain the listeners' support or approval; accomplishes (1) summarizes the main ideas of the speech (2) leave listeners with a memorable final idea
Transitions
Words, phrases, and sentences that connect ideas in a speech; signals listeners that you have finished talking about one idea and are ready to move to the next one
Evidence
Is material used to support claims, may enhance listeners' interest and emotional response to ideas, most important function is to (1) used to make ideas clearer, more compelling and more dramatic (2) fortifies a speaker's opinions (3) heightens speaker's credibility, will come across as informed and well prepared; effectiveness of evidence depends directly on whether listeners understand and accept it, reinforces importance of adapting to listeners; can be statistics, examples, comparisons, and quotations
Halo effect
People are well known in one area, are quoted in an area outside their expertise
Oral footnote
Acknowledges a source of evidence and sometimes explains the source's qualifications
Oral style
Generally should be personal, may include personal stories/pronounces, refer to themselves as I; effective oral style tends to be immediate and active, important because listeners must understand ideas immediately, sustain eye contact
Impromptu delivery
Involves little or no preparation, effect for speakers who know their material
Extemporaneous delivery
Extemporaneous delivery
Manuscript delivery
Involves presenting a speech from a complete, written manuscript, requires speaker to write out the entire content of a speech and rely on the written document or a teleprompter projection when making the presentation; appropriate in situations that call for precision
Memorized delivery
Extension of the manuscript style of speaking; where a speaker commits an entire speech to memory and presents it without relying on written texts or notes; shares risk of canned delivery and lacks dynamism and immediacy, as well as forgetting
Communication apprehension
Is a detrimental level of anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication encounters
Systematic desensitization
Focuses on reducing the tension that surrounds the feared event by relaxing and thereby reducing the physiological features of anxiety, ex. Shallow breathing and increased heart rate
Cognitive restructuring
A method of reducing communication apprehension; a process of revising how people think about speaking situations; the speaking is not the problem, rather the problem is irrational beliefs about speaking—learn to identify and challenge negative self-statements
Positive visualization
A technique for reducing communication apprehension; aims to reduce speaking anxiety by guiding apprehensive speakers through imagined positive speaking experiences; allows people to form mental pictures of themselves as effective speakers and to then enact those mental pictures in actual speaking situations
Skills training
Assumes that lack of speaking skills causes us to be apprehensive; method focuses on teaching people such skills as starting conversations, organizing ideas, and responding effectively to others