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18.1 "Origins of the Cold War"
Terms in this set (29)
United Nations (UN)
An international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world belong, founded in 1945 to promote world peace, security, and economic development
A country that is dominated politically and economically by another nation
The blocking of another nations attempts to spread its influence
Phrased used by Winston Churchill, in 1946, to describe an imaginary line that separated Communist countries in the Soviet bloc of Eastern Europe from countries in Western Europe
The state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union after WW2
U.S. Policy, announced by Harry S. Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents
The United States supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WW2
A 327-day operation in which the U.S. and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948
North AtlanticTreaty Organization (NATO)
A defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European Countries, the United States, and Canada
In what two ways did the United States and the Soviet Union differ?
Under Soviet communism, the state controlled all property and economic activity, while in the capitalistic American system, private citizens controlled almostall economic activity.
In the American system, voting by the people elected a president and a congress from competing political parties; in the Soviet Union,the Communist Party established a totalitarian government with no opposing parties.
Why did relations worsen between the US and the Soviet Union during WWII?
1. The United States was furious that Joseph Stalin had been an ally of Hitler for a time; Stalin had supported the Allies only after Hitler invaded theSoviet Union
2. Stalin resented the Western Allies'' delay in attacking the Germans in Europe. Such an attack, he thought, would draw part of the German army awayfrom the Soviet Union.
3. Relations worsened after Stalin learned that the United States had kept its development of the atomic bomb secret.
Why was he UN important to both the US and the Soviet Union?
Both the United States and the Soviet Union used the UN as a forum to spread their influence over others.
Who attended the Potsdam Conference?
U.S. - President Truman
Great Britain - Prime Minister Clement Attlee
Soviet Union - Stalin
What promise had Stalin not kept from the Yalta Conference?
allowing free elections in Poland and other Eastern EuropeN countries
Why did Truman want countries formerly under Nazi control to have free elections?
to spread democracy create new world order in which all nations had the right of self-determination
What happened to US industry during WWII? As a result, what did American businesses desire?
U.S. industry boomed during the war; to continue growing, American businesses wanted access to raw materials in Eastern Europe, and they wanted to be able to sell goods to Eastern European countries.
How did Stalin justify Soviet claim to Eastern Europe?
unlike the United States, the Soviet Union had suffered heavy devastation on its own soil. As a result, the Soviets felt justified in their claim to Eastern Europe. By dominating this region, the Soviets felt they could stop future invasions from the west.
What were the names of the Soviet satellite nations?
Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland.
What alarming speech did Stalin give in 1946?
communism and capitalism were incompatible—and that another war was inevitable.
What were the US aims after WWII?
•Create a new world order in which all nations had the right of self-determination
•Gain access to raw materials and markets for its industries
•Rebuild European governments to ensure stability and to create new markets forAmerican goods
•Reunite Germany, believing that Europe would be more secure if Germany were productive
What were the Soviet aims after WWII?
•Encourage communism in other countries as part of the worldwide struggle between workers and the wealthy
•Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europe's industrial equipment and raw materials
•Control Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western Europe
•Keep Germany divided and weak so that it would never again threaten the Soviet Union
bringing under control
The Truman Doctrine was a result of what?
the threat of Soviet influence and possible take over
How did the Marshall Plan benefit the United States?
To Supply Europe with goods, American farms and factories raised production levels. As a result,the American economy continued its wartime boom.
In addition to providing aid to Western Europe, the Marshall Plan was intended to prevent what?
the spread and influence of Communism
Describe how Germany was divided and unified after WWII?
at the end of WorldWar II, Germany was divided into four zones occupied by the United States, Great Britain, and France in the west and the Soviet Union in the east.
In 1948, Britain, France, and the United States decided to combine their three zones into one nation.
The western part of Berlin, which had been occupied by the French, British, and Americans, was surrounded by Soviet-occupied territory.
Describe how Berlin was affected by the WWII agreement between the Allies and the Soviets.
there was no written agreement with the Soviets guaranteeing free access to Berlin by road or rail. Stalin saw thought he might be able to take over the part of Berlin held by the three Western powers. In June 1948, Stalin closed all highway and rail routes into West Berlin
What were the results of the Berlin airlift?
West Berlin survived and the Soviets airlifted the blockade
What was significant about the United States and NATO?
for the first time in its history, the United States had entered into a military alliance with other nations during peacetime
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