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This is known as the Year of Miracles; when most countries gained independence from the Soviet Union
Polish Communist who borrowed heavily from Western nations to rebuild the economy which simply led to Poland's great debts
leader of the polish Solidarity party who was arrested and then later made the polish prez
the repeal of the Brezhnev Doctrine
this caused the opening up of negotiations between the Polish gov't and Solidarity
Aleksander Kwanieuski (sp?)
former commy who defeated Walesa in polish presidential elections because of the severe unemployment and popular discontent w/ Walesa
led a writers rebellion and succeeded Husak and helped bring Czechoslovakian communism down granted amnesty to 300,000 prisoners
Romanian dictator went from complete control of his country to uprisings to the betrayal of his army to his trial to his and his wife's execution
East German hardliner who used the secret police as his personal army ruled w/ iron fist for 18 yrs.
most important Detente treaty in which the US and the Soviet Union agreed to limit antiballistic missiles
nothing was actually accomplished in this treaty besides the fact that it was the first arms treaty
significant disarmament treaty that could have been a major part of Detente but b/c of Afghanistan Carter pulled out of Senate
Brezhnev's economic problems
1. command economy 2. agricultural problems (3. workers didn't work or care)
Gorbachev's willingness to reevaluate the way Soviet foreign policy had always been; helped bring an end to the Cold War
"restructuring" @ first just reforming the economy then when it was realized that the economy political and social systems were too closely tied together so he ended up reforming them all
"openness" Gorbachev encouraged the people to have and voice their own opinons about the way the country was run
Gorbachev and Afghanistan
wanted pro-Soviet regime but it hardened relationships b/t the USSR and the US and it cost too much $ so Gorbachev had to w/draw showing weakness
the Baltic states
seceded from the USSR in 1990 (they were part of the USSR and not Soviet satellites)
when the hardliners arrested Gorbachev and tried to seize power he almost single handedly quashed the revolt
wanted to separate but the Soviet Union would not allow it but fighting lasted to 2000 and it cost the Soviet Union lots of $ and resources
september 1991 the yugoslavian army initiated a full assault on this country in which they gained 1/3 of the property by brutal force
all sides of the Bosnian war met in Ohio and eventually agreed to split Bosnia b/t the Serbs and Muslim Croats
Argentina tried to seize British colonial islands but the British responded w/ such force that they devastated the Argentian army
European racist parties
were created b/c of the bitterness of the hard working foreigners taking the jobs of the lazy natives
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