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This is known as the Year of Miracles; when most countries gained independence from the Soviet Union


this country leads the yr. of miracles

Edward Gierek

Polish Communist who borrowed heavily from Western nations to rebuild the economy which simply led to Poland's great debts


the workers union that turned into a political party

Lech Walesa

leader of the polish Solidarity party who was arrested and then later made the polish prez

the repeal of the Brezhnev Doctrine

this caused the opening up of negotiations between the Polish gov't and Solidarity

Aleksander Kwanieuski (sp?)

former commy who defeated Walesa in polish presidential elections because of the severe unemployment and popular discontent w/ Walesa

Vaclav Havel

led a writers rebellion and succeeded Husak and helped bring Czechoslovakian communism down granted amnesty to 300,000 prisoners

Nicolae Ceaușescu

Romanian dictator went from complete control of his country to uprisings to the betrayal of his army to his trial to his and his wife's execution

Erich Honeker

East German hardliner who used the secret police as his personal army ruled w/ iron fist for 18 yrs.

ABM Treaty

most important Detente treaty in which the US and the Soviet Union agreed to limit antiballistic missiles


nothing was actually accomplished in this treaty besides the fact that it was the first arms treaty


scandal that forced Nixon to resign and the end of Detente

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

showed the weakness of the Soviet Union

Iran Crisis

led to the end of Carter's presidency b/c he led by morals


significant disarmament treaty that could have been a major part of Detente but b/c of Afghanistan Carter pulled out of Senate

Brezhnev's economic problems

1. command economy 2. agricultural problems (3. workers didn't work or care)

"New Thinking"

Gorbachev's willingness to reevaluate the way Soviet foreign policy had always been; helped bring an end to the Cold War


"restructuring" @ first just reforming the economy then when it was realized that the economy political and social systems were too closely tied together so he ended up reforming them all


"openness" Gorbachev encouraged the people to have and voice their own opinons about the way the country was run

Gorbachev and Afghanistan

wanted pro-Soviet regime but it hardened relationships b/t the USSR and the US and it cost too much $ so Gorbachev had to w/draw showing weakness

Brezhnev Doctrine

it was repealed in 1989 and this brought about the year of miracles

Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

The Baltic states

the Baltic states

seceded from the USSR in 1990 (they were part of the USSR and not Soviet satellites)

Boris Yeltsin

when the hardliners arrested Gorbachev and tried to seize power he almost single handedly quashed the revolt

first prez of Russia

Boris Yeltsin

Dec 25, 1991 the soviet Union was dismantled

this brought an end to the Cold War w/ no shots fired

Vladimir Putin

current Russian prez ex member of KGB


"the truth" Soviet newspaper


wanted to separate but the Soviet Union would not allow it but fighting lasted to 2000 and it cost the Soviet Union lots of $ and resources


multinational empire consists of 6 republics and 2 autonomous provinces


nonserbian Yugoslav leader led a communist country that was not soviet influenced


filled the vacuum after the failure of a strong leader to rise after Tito

Serbian nationalism

the reason why Milosevic remained in power

June 1991

Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence from Yugoslavia


september 1991 the yugoslavian army initiated a full assault on this country in which they gained 1/3 of the property by brutal force

Dayton Accords

all sides of the Bosnian war met in Ohio and eventually agreed to split Bosnia b/t the Serbs and Muslim Croats


Serbs believed it to be sacred b/c that is where they were beaten by the ottoman turks


British labour party prime minister who broke the labor unions

foreign policy

thatcher's policy that was similar to Regan's

Falklands war

Argentina tried to seize British colonial islands but the British responded w/ such force that they devastated the Argentian army

Al Queda

led by bin laden- bombed US embassies, attacked the USS COLE, and 9.11

European racist parties

were created b/c of the bitterness of the hard working foreigners taking the jobs of the lazy natives


nuclear disaster that made people more aware of environmental issues

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