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37 terms

Science Cells and Heredity

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Cell
the smallest unit that is able to perform the basic functions of life
Unicellular
organisms with one cell
Multicellular
organisms with two or more cells
Prokaryote
a cell that lacks a nucleus and other organelles, with DNA that isn't organized into chromosomes.
Eukaryote
a cell in which the genetic material is enclosed within a nucleus, surrounded by its own membrane.
Cytoplasm
a thick, gelatin-like material contained within a cell membrane. (most of the work is carried out in the cytoplasm)
Organelle
a structure of a cell that is enclosed by a membrane and that performs a particular function
Nucleus
contains genetic material to reproduce and function
Chloroplast
contains, in plants, chlorophyll
Vacuole
stores supplies in cells
Mitochondria
releases energy by using oxygen to breakdown sugar
Tissue
a group of similar cells that are organized to do specific jobs
Organ
structure in a plant/animal cell made of different tissues collaborating to perform particular functions
Organ system
a group of organs forming an organism
carbohydrate
a type of molecule made of subunits of sugar and is used for energy and structure
protein
a molecule made of amino acids controlling cell activity, growth, and repair.
lipid
a molecule made of fatty acids, used to store energy.
glucose
a major sugar energy source for most cells
starch
an odorless white sugar in carbohydrates
photosynthesis
process by which plants absorb sunlight to produce glucose and energy
cuticle
thin layer at the top made of wax
epidermis
prevent water from entering at top and bottom
palisade mesophyll
upper leaf part where most of photosynthesis occurs
spongy mesophyll
under palisade mesophyll creating airspace for gases to move
stomata
lets gases diffuse in and out of leaf
guard cells
contain chloroplasts and allows guard cells to open and close
xylem
water transport
phloem
transports food from special tissues and veins
cellular respiration
the process by which energy stored in food is turned into usable energy. (C6H1206 + 602 = 6C02 + 6H20 + "usable energy")
Glycolysis
extra storage of glucose
Aerobic Respiration
use of oxygen in mitochondria
Anaerobic Respiration
no use of oxygen by fermentation
Adenosine Triphosphate
ATP. usable energy to cell
Passive Transport
movement of materials through a membrane without energy
Diffusion
a substance moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Osmosis
movement of water through a membrane from an area of high concentration to low concentration
Active transport
movement of materials through a membrane with energy