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41 terms

ESC1000 Chapter 16 Atmosphere

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Weather
The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place. Also called average weather.
Climate
The sum of all the weather information that helps describe a place or region. Also called long term weather.
Elements of weather
air temperature, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, type and amount of precipitation, air pressure, speed and direction of wind speed.
air temperature
Elements of weather: ______________, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, type and amount of precipitation, air pressure, speed and direction of wind.
humidity
Elements of weather: air temperature, ______________, type and amount of cloudiness, type and amount of precipitation, air pressure, speed and direction of wind.
type and amount of cloudiness
Elements of weather: air temperature, humidity, ______________, type and amount of precipitation, air pressure, speed and direction of wind.
type and amount of precipitation
Elements of weather: air temperature, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, ______________, air pressure, speed and direction of wind.
air pressure
Elements of weather: air temperature, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, type and amount of precipitation, ______________, speed and direction of wind.
speed and direction of wind
Elements of weather: air temperature, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, type and amount of precipitation, air pressure, ______________.
Atmosphere
the gaseous portion of any planet.
Air
a mix of many gases and suspended particles.
Composition of air
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases including carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide.
Water vapour
forms clouds which have a strong effect on weather
Aerosols
Fine particles in the air such as smoke, soot, dust, pollen, germs, sea salt.
Ozone
O3. Chemical in the atmosphere that blocks most UV radiation from the sun from hitting the earth.
Barometer
instrument for measuring air pressure.
1000 millibars or 1 bar
average air pressure at sea level.
3.5 miles
height above sea level when air pressure drops to half (500 mb)
Troposphere
bottom layer of the atmosphere.
7.5 miles
thickness of the troposphere
Normal lapse rate
Average drop in temperature as you rise in altitude above sea level through the troposphere. 6.5 degrees Celsius per km.
Environmental lapse rate
Actual drop in temperature per kilometer rise in altitude.
Ozone layer
layer of O3 gas in the stratosphere that protects organisms from UV radiation.
CFC gases
chemical that destroys the Ozone layer.
Amount of daylight received
Cause of the seasons.
23.5 degrees
Tilt of the world's axis.
Summer solstice
longest day and shortest night of the year. Officially starts June 21.
Summer solstice
day when sun rises furthest north of east and sets furthest north of west, in the northern hemisphere.
Winter solstice
shortest day and longest night of the year. Officially starts December 21
Fall equinox
when day equals night. September 22
Spring equinox
when day equals night. March 21
Equinox
when sun rises due east and sets due west.
90 degrees
latitude of the north pole
0 degrees
latitude of the equator
Angle
feature of sunlight when it hits the earth that has a strong effect on temperature
Albedo
reflectivity.
Albedo
feature of land and water that affects how quickly the sun heats them.
Altitude
Characteristics that affects how much of the sun's energy affects the earth: _______, albedo, air thickness, and angle of the sun.
Albedo
Characteristics that affects how much of the sun's energy affects the earth: altitude, _______, air thickness, and angle of the sun.
air thickness
Characteristics that affects how much of the sun's energy affects the earth: altitude, albedo, _______, and angle of the sun.
angle of the sun
Characteristics that affects how much of the sun's energy affects the earth: altitude, albedo, air thickness, and _______.