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30 terms

Neck and Head Muscles (w/pictures)

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Occipitofrontalis (part of the Epicranius)
Origin
Frontal belly- epicranial aponeurosis
Occipital belly- Highest nuchal line of the Occipital bone
Insertion
Frontal belly- Tissues of eyebrows and bridge of nose
Occipital belly- Epicranial aponeurosis
Action
Frontal belly- raises eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead horizontally (expressions of surprise and fright)
Occipital belly- draws the scalp backward (expressions of surprise or fright)
Innervation:

Special Topics
Epicranius is a broad sheet of muscle and aponeurotic tissue covering the top, front and back of the head.
Aponeurosis is a broad, white tendonous tissue.
Corrugator Supercilii
Origin- Superciliary ridge of the frontal bone
Insertion- Skin of the eyebrow (just above bridge of the nose)
Action- wrinkles the forehead vertically
Obicularis Oculi
Origin- encircles the eyelid
Insertion- encircles the eyelid
Action- Closes the eye (blink, squint, wink)
Zygomaticus Major
Origin- Zygomatic bone
Insertion- Angle of the mouth
Action- Elevates the angle of the mouth (laughing & smiling)
Obicularis Oris
Origin- Encircles the mouth
Insertion- Encircles the mouth
Action- Draws the lips together (pout)
Buccinator
Origin- Maxillae
Insertion- Skin of sides of the mouth
Action- Facilitates smiling and chewing; blowing (trumpet playing mm)
Masseter
Origin- Zygomatic Arch
Insertion- Angle and Coronoid Process of the Mandible
Action-
Bilateral: Elevation(chewing)
Unilateral: ipsilateral lateral deviation
Temporalis
Origin- Temporal fossa
Insertion- Coronoid process of the mandible
Action-
Bilateral: elevation and retrusion(chewing, grinding)
Unilateral: ipsilateral lateral deviation (Moves the mouth side to side in chewing.)
Medial Pterygoid
Origin- Under surface of the skull at the lateral pterygoid plates of the sphenoid
Insertion- inner surface of the ramus and angle of the mandible
Action-
Bilateral: elevation and protrusion of the jaw
Unilateral: Contralateral lateral deviation
Lateral Pterygoid
Origin- Under surface of the skull at the lateral pterygoid plates of the sphenoid
Insertion- Mandibular Condyle
Action-
Bilateral: depression and protrusion of the jaw
Unilateral: Contralateral lateral deviation
Sternocleidomastoid
Origin- Sternum and Clavicle
Insertion- Mastoid process of the temporal bone
Action-
Bilaterally: flexes the neck, Unilaterally: laterally bends the neck; rotates the head to the opposite side
Innervation: Accessory nerve
Scalenes
Origin- Transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae
Insertion- 1st and 2nd rib
Action-
Bilateral: cervical flexion
Unilaterally: lateral bending
Splenius Capitis
Origin- Ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7 to T3
Insertion-Mastoid process of the temporal bone and the occipital bone
Action-
Bilaterally: cervical extension Unilaterally: Rotate and laterally bend the neck to the same side
Innervation: Middle & lower cervical nerves
Splenius Cervicis
Origin- Spinous process of vertebrae T3 to T6
Insertion- Transverse processes of C1 to C3 (cervicis)
Action-
Bilaterally: Cervical extension
Unilaterally: Rotate and laterally bend the neck to the same side
Innervation: Middle & lower cervical nerves
External Intercostals
Origin- Rib above
Insertion- Rib below
Action- Elevates ribs, to expand the ribcage during inhalation
Innervation: Intercostal nerve
Internal Intercostals
Origin- Rib below
Insertion- Rib above
Action- Depresses rib to brings ribs close together to force exhalation
Innervation: Intercostal nerve
Diaphragm
Origin- Lower circumference of the rib cage or thorax
Insertion- central tendon of the diaphragm
Action- Enlarges the rib cage causing inspiration
Innervation: Phrenic nerve
External Oblique
Origin- Ribs 5 to 12 (lower 8)
Insertion- Iliac crest and linea alba
Action-
Bilaterally: trunk flexion and compresses the abdomen
Unilaterally: Lateral bending and rotation to the opposite side
Innervation: 8th-12th intercostal, iliohypogastric & ilioinguinal nerves
Internal Oblique
Origin- Inguinal ligament, iliac crest, and thoracolumbar fascia
Insertion- Ribs 10-12 and abdominal aponeurosis
Action-
Bilaterally: trunk flexion and compression of the abdomen
Unilaterally: lateral bending; rotation to the same side
Innervation: 8th-12th intercostal, iliohypogastric & ilioinguinal nerves
Transverse Abdominis
Origin- Ribs 6 to 12, iliac crest , inguinal ligament, and thoracolumbar fascia

Insertion- Pubic bone, linea alba, abdominal aponeurosis


Action- compresses the abdomen
Innervation: 7th-12th intercostal, iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves
Rectus Abdominis
Origin- Pubis
Insertion- xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7
Action- Compresses abdomen and trunk flexion
Innervation: 7th-12th intercostal nerves
Quadratus Lumborum
Origin- Iliac crest
Insertion- Rib 12 and transverse processes of L1 to L5
Action- Trunk lateral bending
Special Topics- Aides in forced expiration
Innervation: 12th thoracic and 1st lumbar nerves
Spinalis Muscles
Origin- Lower cervical or lower thoracic/upper lumbar vertebrae
Insertion- Upper cervical or middle/upper thoracic vertebrae (superior to the origin)
Action- Extends the neck or Vertebral column
Innervation- Cervical or thoracic Nerves
Iliocostalis Muscles
Origin- Various regions of the pelvis and ribs
Insertion- Ribs and vertebra (superior to the origin)
Action- Extends, laterally flexes the vertebral column
Innervation- Spinal, thoricic, or lumbar nerves
Longissimus Muscles
Origin- Cervical and thoracic vertebrae, ribs
Insertion- Mastoid process, upper cervical vertebrae, or upper lumbar vertebrae
Action- Extends head, neck or vetebral column
Innervation- Cervical or throacic and lumbar nerves
Special Topics- Capitis and Cevicis origins are inferior to the insertion, while thoracis origin is superior to the insertion.
Semispinalis Muscles
Origin- Transverse processes
Insertion- Spinous processes of the vertebra above
Action-
Bilaterally: Extend
Unilaterally: Rotate to the opposite side
Innervation- Spinal nerves
Multifidus Muscles
Origin- Transverse processes of the vertebrae, sacrum & illium
Insertion- Spinous process vertebrae above
Action- Cervical and trunk extension, cervical and trunk rotation
Rotatores Muscles
Origin- Transverse processes
Insertion- Spinous processes of the vertabra above
Action-
Bilaterally: Extend the spine
Unilaterally: Rotate vertebrae to the opposite side
Innervation- Spinal nervers
Interspinales Group
Origin- Spinous processes of vertebrae below
Insertion- Spinous processes of the vertebrae
Above
Action-
Extend the spine
Innervation- Spinal nerves
Intertransversarii Group
Origin- Transverse process below
Insertion- Transverse process above
Action- Trunk lateral bending
Innervation- Spinal nerves