DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis
Terms in this set (18)
What clues did bacterial transformations yield about the gene?
By observing bacterial transformation, Avery and other scientists discovered that the nucleic acid DNA stores and transmits genetic information from one generation of bacteria to the next.
What told did bacterial viruses play in identifying genetic material?
Hershey and Chase's experiment with bacteriophages confirmed Avery's results, convincing many scientists that DNA was the genetic material found in genes in all living cells.
What is the role of DNA in heredity?
The DNA that makes up genes must be capable of storing, copying, and transmitting the genetic information in a cell.
What are the chemical components of DNA?
DNA is a nucleic acid made up of nucleotides joined into long strands or chains by covalent bonds.
What clues helped scientists solve the structure of DNA?
The clues in Franklin's X-ray pattern enabled Watson and Crick to build a model that explained the specific structure and properties of DNA.
What does the double-helix model tell us about DNA?
The double-helix model explains Chargaff's rule of base pairing and how the two strands of DNA are held together.
What role does DNA polymerase play in copying DNA?
DNA polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA.
How does DNA replication differ in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
Replication in prokaryotic cells starts from a single point and proceeds in two directions. Replication in eukaryotic cells begins in more than one point and proceeds in two directions.
How does RNA differ from DNA?
Sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose, RNA is generally single-stranded and not double-stranded, and RNA contains uracil in place of thymine.
How does then cell make RNA?
In transcription, segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules.
What is the genetic code, and how is it read?
The genetic code is read three "letters" at a time, so that each "word" is three bases long and corresponds to a single amino acid.
What role does the ribosome play in assembling proteins?
Ribosomes use the sequence of codons in mRNA to assemble amino acids into polypeptide chains.
What is the "central dogma" of molecular biology?
The central dogma of molecular biology is that information is transferred from DNA to RNA to protein.
What are mutations?
Mutations are heritable changes in genetic information.
How do mutations affect genes?
The effects of mutations on genes vary widely. Some have little or no effect; and some produce beneficial variations. Some negatively disrupt gene function.
How are prokaryotic genes regulated?
DNA-binding proteins in prokaryotes regulate genes by controlling transcription.
How are genes regulated in eukaryotic cells?
By binding DNA sequences in the regulatory regions of eukaryotic genes, transcription factors control the expression of this genes.
What controls the development of cells and tissues in multicellular organisms?
Master control genes are like switches that trigger particular patterns of development and differentiation in cells and tissues.
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