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52 terms

HumNut 210 Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following is not a class of nutrient?
Alcohol
Which of the following nutrients can directly supply energy for human use?
Lipids and oils
What substances, present in fruits and vegetables, provide significant health benefits such as reducing the risk of cancer?
Phytochemicals
Fibers belong to the class of nutrients known as
carbohydrates
Gram for gram, which provides the most energy?
fats
A kcalorie is a measure of
heat energy
A meal consisting of a cheeseburger, large fries, and a chocolate shake provides a total of 1,120 kcalories, of which 48 percent of the energy is from carbohydrate and 13 percent from protein. How many kcalories of fat does the meal contain?
437
Which of the following contain no calories?
vitamins
Which of the following terms describes psychological influences that encourage us to find and eat food?
appetite
Which of the following is not true about water?
provides energy
Which of the following most accurately describes the term epidemiology?
A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups
Which of the following accurately describes the term hypotheses?
An educated guess by a scientist to explain a phenomenon
Which government agency is responsible for regulating most U.S. food labeling?
Food and Drug Administration
When looking at the ingredient label of a bottled spaghetti sauce, you see that olive oil is the second ingredient. This means that olive oil is
the second most abundant ingredient by weight.
RDAs are not used in food labeling because
they are age and gender specific.
Missy visits a doctor because she feels tired most of the time, is easily distracted, and feels chilled. As part of her examination, Missy has blood drawn to be tested for concentrations of nutrients and their by-products. This part of the examination is the
biochemical evaluation.
Adequate Intakes (AI)
are established for nutrients for which there is not enough information to set RDAs.
You pick up a box of Cheerios cereal in the supermarket. The label tells you that a 1-cup serving provides 25 percent of the ______ for iron.
Daily Value
Nutrient density can be defined as the amount of
a particular nutrient in a serving of food divided by the number of kcalories in that serving.
The acronym DRI stands for
Dietary Reference Intake.
What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?
Epiglottis
The stomach empties into the small intestine through the
pyloric sphincter
These protein-based substances enhance digestion by making chemical reactions more likely to happen.
enzymes
Where are most digestive enzymes produced?
Pancreas and small intestine
Which of the following body organs produces bile?
liver
Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver?
portal vein
After digestion and absorption, which circulatory system carries fat and fat-soluble vitamins?
lymphatic
A function of the large intestine is to absorb
water and minerals
finger-like projection on surface of small intestine that greatly increase the surface area for digestion
villus
name given to small intestinal cell
enterocyte
1st section of the small intestine
duodenum
circular muscle that controls the flow of food or chyme by preventing it from going backwards
sphincter
the wavelike motion that moves chyme through the GI system
peristalsis
A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of
two monosaccharides
The term "simple carbohydrates" refers to
monosaccharides and disaccharides.
Which of the following is a major source of lactose?
skim milk
Major fructose sources include
fruits and high fructose corn syrup
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the
mouth with salivary amylase
amylase is
an enzyme that digests starch
Which of the following hormones corrects a hyperglycemic state?
insulin
Which of the following hormones is released to correct a hypoglycemic state?
glucagon
glycogen is
a highly branched polysaccharide
Which of the following is an essential fatty acid?
linoleic
Phospholipids differ from triglycerides in which of the following ways?
A compound containing phosphorus replaces at least one fatty acid.
In which form are most dietary lipids found?
triglycerides
the main function of adipose tissue it to
store triglycerides
The major fat-digesting enzyme is
pancreatic lipase.
After chylomicrons leave the intestinal cells, they are transported via what system?
lymphatic
Which lipoprotein is responsible for picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources so it can be transported back to the liver for excretion?
High-density lipoprotein
To be transported throughout the body, fats are packaged in structures called
lipoproteins
The main regulator of blood cholesterol levels is
the liver
A desirable total serum cholesterol level is less than ____ milligrams per deciliter.
200