The founder of Islam, considered to be the last prophet.
List the 5 Pillars and explain each one.
1. Prayer - 3 or 5 times a day 2. Declaration of Faith - Allah is the only God 3. Charity - must give a percentage of wealth to the poor. 4. Fasting - during the month of Ramadan 5. Pilgrimage - to Mecca once in lifetime if possible
Where did Muhammad begin his teachings, and why did he flee to Medina?
He began in Mecca but no longer had protection from danger and persecution after the death of his uncle so he fled Medina.
What is the Kaaba and where is it located? Significance?
The Kaaba is located in Mecca and is the object of the direction of prayer for Muslims.
Where is the Dome of the Rock? Why is it important?
The Dome of the Rock is/was thought by some to be location of Muhammad's ascension to heaven. It is located in Jerusalem.
The spiritual capital of Islamic faith is...
Why is the spiritual capital of Islamic faith Mecca?
It was the birthplace of Muhammad and center of his work upon his return from Medina.
What are the political and religious leaders of Islam called?
What are Muslim temples called?
Why did the Muslim community split in 656 CE?
There was a serious disagreement over how the Caliphs should be chosen.
Why is the year 1453 CE important to Muslims?
It is the year the Ottoman Turks (a Muslim kingdom) took over Constantinople.
What modern city in Iraq was once known as a center for Islamic learning and achievements?
How did Islam spread to places like the Far East and North Africa?
Trade and spread of the Arabic language
What is the significance of the Battle of Tours?
Charles Martel and the Franks stopped the spread of Islam into Europe.
Describe the major difference between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims.
Sunni - believed that anyone who followed the ways of Muhammad could be Caliph Shi'ite (Shi'a) - believed that only those descended from Muhammad should be Caliph.
What is the holy book of Islam? Why is it holy?
The Qur'an - said to be the written version of Gabriel's communications with Muhammad
What do Muslims do during the month of Ramadan?
Fast in an effort to learn patience, spirituality, and to be closer to Allah.
What were some of the achievements of Islamic civilization?
Expanded geographic knowledge, invention of the lateen sail, algebraic knowledge, improvements in medicine, Arabesque mosaics, Arabic alphabet and numerals... (See Muslim Achievements Notes)
Which Judeo-Christian prophets do Muslims accept?
Moses, Noah, Jesus
What was the first Muslim Empire, when did it exist, and where was its capital?
Umayyad, 661-750 CE, Damascus
Why was the first Muslim Empire short-lived?
They lacked political unity
How did the Byzantine Empire and Persian Empire inadvertently help the Islamic Empire grow?
They were weakened
How did Muslims determine who could or could not be enslaved?
No free Muslim could be enslaved. Slaves were not selected based on race.
What were the areas encompassed by the Muslim empires?
Most of the area of the former Roman Empire, North Africa
Why are Jerusalem and Damascus significant in Islamic history and faith?
They were early conquests in the Islamic Empire. Jerusalem is the home of the Dome of the Rock.
Which African kingdoms developed on the Niger River?
Songhai, Mali, Ghana
What was traded across the Sahara desert? How did trans-Saharan trade help spread the Islamic faith?
Gold & salt - trade brought Islam farther south onto the African continent.
What were the achievements of Mali under the rule of Mansa Musa?
Introduction of Islamic faith, construction of capital at Timbuktu, built largest Arab library
What were the achievements of Songhai under the rule of Askia Muhammad?
Expanded territory, strengthened Timbuktu, created Sharia (laws based on Qur'anic teaching)
Which African civilizations fell to European colonizers?
Great Zimbabwe, Songhai
How did the other African civilizations fall?
Loss of power or invasion by other African kingdoms
What ancient African civilization was a rival of Nubia Kush?
Where is Zimbabwe located in Africa? What rivers are nearby? Ocean?
Southern Africa, near Indian Ocean and Zambezi & Limpopo Rivers
What did Zimbabwe trade across the Indian Ocean? Imports? Exports?
Indian cloth, Chinese porcelain, gold, iron
Where was Axum located? Why was it a Christian kingdom?
It was south of Nubia Kush, along the Red Sea. They were a Christian kingdom because their leader embraced it and converted.