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Terms in this set (45)
Nominative as a Subject
The subject of a verb is in the nominative case.
A noun with a linking verb to define or identify the subject is also in the nominative. Such a noun is called a predicate nminative, oor predicate noun, or sunjective complement.
Genative of Possession
One of the uses of the genative case is to show possessio.
Ablative of place where
The ablative case is used with certian prepositions to answer the question Where?
Agreement of Verbs
A verb agrees with its subject in person and number.
Accusative of the Direct Object
One of the uses of the accusative case is to indicate the direct object of a verb
Ablative of Accompaniment
Another use of the ablative case is with the preposition cum, with, to indicate accompaniment; in this use the ablative of Accopaniment
A noun usedto describe another noun, or a pronoun, is said to be its appositive, or to be used in apposition with it. An appositive must refer to the same person or thing as or pronoun to which it applies, and must also be in the same case.In Latin it usually its noun or pronoun
Uses of Sum
Sum is ordinarily used as linking verb, connecting its subjective with a predicative nominative or some otehr kind of linking verb of subjectivve complement.
Accusative of Place to Which
The accusative is used with the prepositions ad, in and sub to answer the question Where [to]?
Ablative of Place Where
The ablative is used with the prepositions in ad sub to answer the question Where [at]?
Ablative of Place from Which
The ablative is used with the prepositions a (ab), de, and ee (ex) to answer the question Where from?
A verb o fmaking naming, or choosing may take, in addition to its direct object, a second accusattive which we call the predicate accusative
Agreement of Adjectives
An adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in gender, number, and case. this is why a Latin adjective must have forms fir all three genders, as well as for the case and numbers.
Uses of Adjectives
Adjectives may be used in three ways: they may be attributaive, predicative, or substantive.
1) attribtive adjective
2) predicative adjective
3) substantive adjective
The Vocative is used for speaking directly to someone. A noun or adjective in the vocative always denotes the person being spoken to. In english we show direct address by setting the words off wiith commans and placing them (usually) at the beginning or end of a clause.
The imperfect tense desirbes an action as uncompleted by some time in the past. This can mean taht the action is pictured as going on at some point in the past (as with the past progressive in English) or as repeated over a period of time in the past.
The Latin future, like the future tense in English, merely states that an action will take place in the futrue.
Dative of an Indirect Object
With verbs or orther expressions of giving saying showing and the like the dative indicates to whom something is given, said, shwon, etc. This use of dative is called the Inderct Object.
Dative of Reference
The dative is also used with other verbs to show to whose advantage or disadvantage the action of the verb is performed. The English trnaslation may use the preposition for or no preposition at all.
Ablative of Means or Instrument
The means by which something is done is expressed by the ablative witout a preposition.
Uses of the Perfect Tense
The perfect tensein Latin has the same meaning as two English tenses, the present perfect and the past. This is why each form is given three translations: I have been called( present perfect), I called, and I did call (past). It is important to rember that these two Englsih tenses are not interchangable.
A particle is a part of speech which cannot be translated by any particular word, but indicates what would be shown by punction or tone of voice in English.
Aut...aut...and vel ...vel...both mean either...or...(similarly et...et means both and).
Uses of the Pluperfect and Furture Perfect
These two tenses have the same uses as the corresponding tenses in English. It represents an action as having already taken place at some poiint in the past.
In Latin every verb is considered to have its own clause. If a sentence has two verbs it has two clauses.
There are two voices in Latin. The active and passive voice.
Ablative of Personal Agent
With an active verb the person by whom the action is performed is the sunject, and is epressed by the nominative. Wiht a passive verb the person by whom the actionis perfored is expressed by the ablative as comin from the agent. It needs 3 P's: a passive, a person, and a preposition.
Predicate Nominative With Passive Verbs
A verb of making, naming, or choosing may take predicative nominative when it is passive.
Agreement of the Perfect Tenses Passive`
In the passive of the perfect systemthe fourth principal part must agree with the subject in gender, number, and case.
Dative with Adjectives
The dative case has two basic uses in Latin. One use is with verbs and the others with adjectives. An examples of ots use with verbs is the dative of the the indirect Object. When it is used to complte or extend the meaning of adjectives it si called the Dative with Adjectives.
When a noun is the name of an action, it may be accompanied by a noun in genitive telling who or what receives the action.
Ablataive of Specification
The ablative is used, without a preposition, to answer the question With respect to What?
A word which implies a part or portion of a whole person, thing, or group may be used with a genitive to indicate the whole.
Ablative of Separation
When a verb has no implied motion and from is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.
The Ablative of Manner
The manner in which an action is performed.
Dative of Possession
The dative case is used with the verb sum to show possession. The possessor is put into the dative. The thing possessed is the subject of the verb to be and is nominative.
Partitive Expression with numerals
ablative with cardinals and genitive with oridnals
Genitive and Ablative of Description
when an English noun is modified by an adjective
Genitive of measure
definite measurement using numerals, expressed in the genitive
Ablative of price
With verbs of buying the price is put into the ablative case
Use of demonstrative adjectives
If it modifies it nouns it must agree with it in gender, number and case and will refer to to where the noun is. If it doesn't modify a noun it is a pronoun.
need an antecedent and are like he she it
don't need an antecedent and are like whom and who
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