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38 terms

AP Psych Unit 13: Social Psychology

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social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory
theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error
tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
central route to persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
peripheral route to persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
role
a set of explanations about a social position, defining how those in that position ought to act
cognitive dissonance theory
theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when 2 of our thoughts are inconsistent
conformity
adjusting one's behaviors or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
social loafing
tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts towards attaining a common goal than when individually responsible
deindividuation
the loss of self-restraint and self-awareness occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
group think
mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
prejudice
an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members; generally involves stereotypes, negative feelings, and predisposition to discriminatory action
ingroup
"us"--people with whom we share a common identity
outgroup
"them"--those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
ingroup bias
tendency to favor our own group
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
other-race effect
tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt
frustration-aggression principle
principle that frustration, the blocking of an attempt to achieve a goal, creates anger, which can generate aggression
mere-exposure effect
phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a relationship
companionate love
deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
equity
a condition in which people receive from a relationship what they give to it
self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself
altruism
unselfish regard for the wlfare of others
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social exchange theory
theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt those who have helped them
social-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent on them
conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
social traps
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in destructive behavior
mirror-image perceptions
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views that other side as evil and aggressive
subordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation