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change in a DNA sequence; could be inherited from parents DNA or caused by chemicals known as mutagens or could be a result of errors in DNA replication
a type of macromolecule that has several functions in the body; made of amino acids strung together in a specific order which is specified by DNA
one of 20 naturally occuring molecules which are put together in a specific order to make a specific protein; order in a protein determines the shape the protein will take, the proteins shape determine what function the protein will have.
scientists used antibiotic resistance genes as genetic markers to identify which bacteria were transformed
gene from soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that creates a protein that is toxic to certain insects
gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't
cuts DNA at specific sites known as recognition sequences; naturally found in bacteria as a defense mechanism against invading viral DNA; digestion produces sticky ends or blunt ends
a circular DNA molecule that is usually found in bacteria and that can replicate independent of the main chromosome
unicellular, prokaryotes, reduced by fission, can be infected by bacteriophages, killed by antibiotics
the uneven ends of a double-stranded DNA molecule that has been cut with a restriction enzyme
technique of using microorganisms, such as bacteria, to perform chemical processing to produce materials (antibiotics and genetic engineering, hormones, vaccines, etc.)
artifical manipulation of genes or the transfer of genes from one organism to another
changes in the sperm, egg, or early embryo; changes will be passed down to offspring, may allow changes in the phenotype
somatic cell engineering
changes in the somatic cells; does not affect sperm or egg, difficult to change phenotype
a technique in which eggs are surgically removed from a woman and fertilized with sperm in the laboratory and then put into a women's uterus
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