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42 terms

Bioethics Final

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gamete
sex cell, sperm or egg
homologous
matching chromosomes; same genes and location, may have different alleles
gene
segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein
chromosome
linear, or threadlike structures found in the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms
autosome
regular chromosomes that do not determine the sex of an individual
karyotype
show an individuals chromosomes useful for detecting chromosomal abnormalities
allele
different forms a gene can take
sex chromosome
23rd pair of chromosomes
haploid
having one set of chromosomes
meiosis
process that makes gametes
recombinant DNA
DNA combined from two or more sources
fertilization
combination of egg and sperm
mitosis
process that makes somatic cells
diploid
having two sets of chromosomes
gene locus
gene location
somatic cell
a body cell
genome
the sum total of all of the genes in a given species
mutation
change in a DNA sequence; could be inherited from parents DNA or caused by chemicals known as mutagens or could be a result of errors in DNA replication
enzyme
a type of protein whose function is to control chemical reactions in the body
protein
a type of macromolecule that has several functions in the body; made of amino acids strung together in a specific order which is specified by DNA
amino acid
one of 20 naturally occuring molecules which are put together in a specific order to make a specific protein; order in a protein determines the shape the protein will take, the proteins shape determine what function the protein will have.
eugenics
the study of methods of improving the quality of the human race
transformation
occurs when bacteria exchange plasmids
antibiotic selection
scientists used antibiotic resistance genes as genetic markers to identify which bacteria were transformed
Bt crops
gene from soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that creates a protein that is toxic to certain insects
genetic marker
gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't
restriction enzyme
cuts DNA at specific sites known as recognition sequences; naturally found in bacteria as a defense mechanism against invading viral DNA; digestion produces sticky ends or blunt ends
round up ready crops
contain a gene for round up resistance
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
plasmid
a circular DNA molecule that is usually found in bacteria and that can replicate independent of the main chromosome
bacteria
unicellular, prokaryotes, reduced by fission, can be infected by bacteriophages, killed by antibiotics
sticky ends
the uneven ends of a double-stranded DNA molecule that has been cut with a restriction enzyme
biotechnology
technique of using microorganisms, such as bacteria, to perform chemical processing to produce materials (antibiotics and genetic engineering, hormones, vaccines, etc.)
genetic engineering
artifical manipulation of genes or the transfer of genes from one organism to another
gene therapy
attempts to correct a disease or a disorder
gene enhancement
attempts to improve a healthy individual
germline engineering
changes in the sperm, egg, or early embryo; changes will be passed down to offspring, may allow changes in the phenotype
somatic cell engineering
changes in the somatic cells; does not affect sperm or egg, difficult to change phenotype
PGD
preimplantation genetic diagnosis - a single cell is removed from the 8 cell embryo and tested
IVF
a technique in which eggs are surgically removed from a woman and fertilized with sperm in the laboratory and then put into a women's uterus
GMO
genetically modified organism
transgenic organism
containing a gene from a different species