44 terms

AP Euro Ch. 29 Key Terms

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Cold War
the conflict between USSR and Poland in competition for Antartica
Decolonization
a worldwide event lasting throughout the second half of the 20th century and beyond that transformed colonial domains in Africa and Asia into independent nations
"Iron Curtain"
Churchill declared this in a speech and said that it divided a free and democratic West from an East under totalitarian rule
Containment Policy
the U.S. policy during the Cold War of resisting Soviet expansion and influence in the expectation that the USSR would eventually collapse
Truman Doctrine
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism
Marshall Plan
the U.S. program named after Secretary of State George C. Marshall of providing economic aid to Europe after World War II
Communist Information Bureau
(Cominform), the revival of the old Comintern, dedicated to spreading revolutionary communism throughout the world
Marshal Josip Tito
the leader of communist Yugoslavia, who freed his country from Soviet domination which caused for the Soviet Union attack communism more harshly and condemn it
Berlin Blockade
The Soviets sealed the city off by closing all railroads and highways that led from Berlin to West Germany to drive the Western powers out of Berlin
NATO
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed when Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Britain , Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Iceland signed this treaty with Canada and the United States, which committed its members to mutual assistance if any of them was attacked
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Arthur Balfour
the British foreign secretary, who in 1917, during WWI, declared that Britain favored establishing a national home for the Jews in Palestine, which was then under Ottoman rule
Arab-Israeli Conflict
After declaring its independence, Israel was attacked by Arabs and after defeating them, its territory had expanded further than the United Nations had planned
38th Parallel
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea and was made by the U.S. and the Soviet Union
Korean War
the conflict between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, supported by the Soviet Union, and the Republic of Korea in the south, supported by the U.S.
Nikita Khrushchev
Named party secretary in 1953, three years later he became premier. His rise ended collective leadership, but he never commanded the extraordinary powers of Stalin
Secret Speech of 1956
speech which denounced Stalin and his crimes gainst socialist justice; gave way for criticism of Soviet government
Suez Intervention
proved that European countries could not impose their will without the help of the U.S.
Hungarian Uprising
Hungary against Russia to Gain independence from Russia, brought a new Hungarian government in 1956 that announced its withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact
Berlin Wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation between US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
Leonid Brezhnev
Soviet statesman who became president of the Soviet Union
Brezhnev Doctrine
Declared the right of the soviet union to interfere in the domestic politics of other communist countries
Détente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
Helsinki Accords
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries.
Pope John Paul II
This Polish Pope brought the world's attention to the solidarity movement of the Polish, calling for human rights. He became a hero of the Polish nation. Karol Wojtyla
Solidarity
A Polish trade union that began the nation's protest against communist rule.
Mohandas Ghandi
A 20th-century Indian who helped lead his country to independence by using nonviolent resistance to colonial rule.
Pieds Noirs
Term used to refer to colonists of Algeria until the end of the Algerian War in 1962. Meaning black feet
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile
National Liberation Front (Algeria)
founded by Algerian nationalists; undertook highly effective guerrilla warfare, resulting in insurrections and open civil war
Ho Chi Minh
turned a nationalist movement against French colonial rule into Indochina Communist Party; declared independence of Vietnam in September 1945
Indochina War
between North Vietnam and French. French eventually surrendered in Vietnam and Vietnam was now divided in to Communist north and Nationalist South
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Mikhail Gorbachev
began the most remarkable and the last great attempt to change the Soviet system; his reforms loosed forces that would force him to retire from office and end communist rule and the Soviet Union
Perestroika
"restructuring"; reduced the size and importance of the centralized economic ministries
Glasnost
"openness"; extraordinary public discussion and criticism of Soviet history and Soviet Communist Party policy
Boris Yeltsin
leading spokesman for a group opposing Gorbachev that wanted to move quickly to a market economy and a more democratic government
Vladimir Putin
successor to Yeltsin; renewed the war against the rebels in Chechnya; supported American assault on Afghanistan
Radical Islamism
an interpretation of Islam that came to have a significant impact in the Muslim world during the decades of decolonization
Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic or Muslim reformism; belief that a reformed or pure Islam must be established in the contemporary world
Jihad
"a struggle"; a religious war, against the Soviet Union
Taliban
rigorous group of Muslims that seized control of Afghanistan; allowed Al Qaeda to establish training camps in their country
Persian Gulf War
Conflict that was triggered by a dispute over oil-drilling rights, leading to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. This war ended when the U.S. intervened, crushing Iraqi resistance and liberating Kuwait.