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What is the equation for oxygen delivery to tissues?
Cardiac Output x Oxygen Content
DO2 = CO x CaO2
Plasma or Dissolved Compartment
O2 physically dissolved into blood, in capillary area.
Hemoglobin or Combined Compartment
O2 chemically attaches to hemoglobin, can load up in lungs and unload. 98% of O2 carried this way.
Each gram of Hb can carry 1.34 ml of O2
Normal = 15 grams% per 100 ml of blood.
HCT / 3 =Hb.
What is the Transit time?
Less than 1 second
It is how long the RBC is in contact with the area where gas exchange takes place.
What PO2 does it take to saturate hemoglobin to 50%
pH has a big effect on P50
When normal P50 is 27 Torr
Factor affecting CaO2-Anemia
Only 1/2 as much ability to do O2 transport by reducing amount of Hb to carry O2
Factor affecting CaO2-Polycythemia
Opposite of anemia, Increases Hb unless a result of Chronic Lung Disease
Factor affecting CaO2-Cyanide
Blocks ability of cells to uptake O2 at mitochondrial level
A-V difference becomes zero
Factor affecting CaO2-Altitude
Increases Hb over time, but SaO2 and PaO2 stay low.
Increase altitude =decrease PIO2
Short term= SaO2 and PaO2 decreases
Factor affecting CaO2- Carbon Monoxide
Hb affect cant do O2 transport because its bound up with Carbon Monoxide PO2 not reliable anymore
If you keep the numbers the same and you reduce Co what happens?
Only half as much O2 is delivered, but the content is the same. When CO decreases your DO2 changes.
Factors that decrease the SvO2
Decreased CO, Periods of increased O2 consumption
Exercise, Seizures, Shivers, Hyperthermia
Low Alveolar PO2, Diffusion Impairment, V/Q Mismatch
Alveolus problem, blood doesnt have access to O2
Low O2 at cellular level because of anemia
Blood carrier problem, Low Hb, Inability of Hb to carry O2
Ex. Carbon monoxide poisoning
How to treat Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1st-get out of area to fresh air
2nd-Use non-rebreather to give highest FIO2 possible
3rd-Evaluate need for Hyperbaric chamber
Circulatory Hypoxia (Stagnet)
Arterial Venous Shunting-instead of going to tissues arterial blood goes back to venous blood circulation
Blood doesnt circulate well
No adequate perfusion to the core during CPR
Classic Example-Cyanide poisoning
Tissues cant uptake O2
Cyanide doesnt allow the cells to utilize the oxygen delivered
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