Class of Sea Stars
Class of Brittle Stars
Class of Sea Urchins
Class of Sea Cucumbers
Class of Crinoids
Sub Phylum of Tunicates
Sub Phylum Urochordata
Sub Phylum of Lancelets
Sub Phylum Cephalochodata
Sub Phylum of Vertebrates
Sub Phylum Vertebrata
Class of Hagfish
Class of Lampreys
Class of Cartilaginous Fish (sharks, skates, rays)
Class of Ray Finned fish
Class of Amphibians
Class of Reptiles (including birds)
Class of Mammals
Echinoderms have _______ symmetry as larva.
Echinoderms have ________ symmetry as adults.
What is the modified hydro static skeleton of Echinoderms?
water vascular system
Why are Echinoderms "spiky"?
ossicles form spines
What is the endoderm of Echinoderms comprised of?
Calcified plates called ossicles
What are the function of tubed feet?
locomotion, feeding, gas exchange, and sensory perception
Where is the radial nerve located?
along each arm
What comprises the nervous system of Echinoderms?
nerve ring and radial nerves
Describe respiration in Echinoderms
accomplished by dermal gills and/or simple diffusion
Describe reproduction in Echinoderms
usually separate sexes and external
In Asteroidea, the mouth faces ______
The feeding habits of Asteroidea are _______
The feeding habits of Ophiuroidea are _________
suspension, scavenging, and predation
The feeding habits of Crinoidea are ___________
What is the feeding structure used by the Class Echinoidea?
Aristotle's latern, over 50 ossicles and has 5 small teeth
What is a test?
the tightley interlocking ossicles that form a single unit
Describe the feeding habits of Echinoidea
most sea urchins are herbivorous, sand dollars are deposit feeders
Describe the feeding habits of Holothuroidea
suspension or deposit feeders
Describe the sea cucumbers defense
self evisceration; expells internal organs
What are the four characteristic shared by all chordates?
dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, notocord, post anal tail
Common name of tunicates
Describe the lifestyle of tunicates
sessile, marine, suspension feeder
Describe the feeding habits of lanceletes
What are the defining characteristics of vertebrates?
extreme cephalization, cranium, neural crest celss, vertebrae (in most), kidneys
Describe the lifestyle of Myxinoidea
hagfish: scavengers that live on the sea floor uses keratinized tooth like structures for feeding, slime glands
Describe the lifestyle of Petromyzontoidea
lampreys: closed relative to modern verts, external parasites of fish, larva are suspension feeders, oral suckers, rasping tongue
Name the two members of chordata without a well developed back bone
Petromyzontoidea (lampreys) and Myxinoidea (hagfish)
What makes up the axial skeleton of vertebrates?
vertebral column plus the cranium
What makes up the appendicular skeleton?
pelvic and pectoral girdles and associated paired appendages
What is the sensory organ in fish that can feel vibrations, electrical fields, and molecular gradients in water.
Chondrichthyes excretes waste as ________
Chondrichthyes hearts have ___ chambers
bear live young
yolky eggs develop within the reproductive tract of the mother until they hatch, but depend on nutrient stores within the eggs.
The bony endoskeleton in Actinopterygii is hardened by what?
What is the operculum?
allows fish to breathe while stationary, covers the gills in Actinopterygii
Actinopterygii excrete waste as ______
What does the swim bladder do?
What is a tetrapod?
an animal with four jointed weight-bearing appendages
Amphibians excrete waste as ____________
tadpole: ammonia; adult: urea
Describe respiration in Amphibians
lungs, gills, dermal respiration
Amphibian hearts have ____ chambers
3 (two atria and one ventricle)
What is an amniote?
tetrapods with amniotic eggs (everything past amphibians)
Reptiles excrete waste as ________
Reptiles have _______ fertilization
Reptiles have _______ circulation
Qualities that allow birds to fly
light hollow bones, uric acid waste,
Bird hearts have _______ chambers
Describe mammal circulation
4 chambered hearts, double circulation, anucleate red blood cells
Mammals excrete waste as ______
What are monotremes?
oviparious and lay reptilian like eggs
What are marsupials?
placental but embryos develop in external pouches
What are eutherians?