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Class of Sea Stars

Class Asteroidea

Class of Brittle Stars

Class Ophiuroidea

Class of Sea Urchins

Class Echinoidea

Class of Sea Cucumbers

Class Holothuroidea

Class of Crinoids

Class Crinoidea

Sub Phylum of Tunicates

Sub Phylum Urochordata

Sub Phylum of Lancelets

Sub Phylum Cephalochodata

Sub Phylum of Vertebrates

Sub Phylum Vertebrata

Class of Hagfish


Class of Lampreys


Class of Cartilaginous Fish (sharks, skates, rays)


Class of Ray Finned fish


Class of Amphibians


Class of Reptiles (including birds)


Class of Mammals


Echinoderms have _______ symmetry as larva.


Echinoderms have ________ symmetry as adults.


What is the modified hydro static skeleton of Echinoderms?

water vascular system

Why are Echinoderms "spiky"?

ossicles form spines

What is the endoderm of Echinoderms comprised of?

Calcified plates called ossicles

What are the function of tubed feet?

locomotion, feeding, gas exchange, and sensory perception

Where is the radial nerve located?

along each arm

What comprises the nervous system of Echinoderms?

nerve ring and radial nerves

Describe respiration in Echinoderms

accomplished by dermal gills and/or simple diffusion

Describe reproduction in Echinoderms

usually separate sexes and external

In Asteroidea, the mouth faces ______


The feeding habits of Asteroidea are _______


The feeding habits of Ophiuroidea are _________

suspension, scavenging, and predation

The feeding habits of Crinoidea are ___________


What is the feeding structure used by the Class Echinoidea?

Aristotle's latern, over 50 ossicles and has 5 small teeth

What is a test?

the tightley interlocking ossicles that form a single unit

Describe the feeding habits of Echinoidea

most sea urchins are herbivorous, sand dollars are deposit feeders

Describe the feeding habits of Holothuroidea

suspension or deposit feeders

Describe the sea cucumbers defense

self evisceration; expells internal organs

What are the four characteristic shared by all chordates?

dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, notocord, post anal tail

Common name of tunicates

sea squirts

Describe the lifestyle of tunicates

sessile, marine, suspension feeder

Describe the feeding habits of lanceletes


What are the defining characteristics of vertebrates?

extreme cephalization, cranium, neural crest celss, vertebrae (in most), kidneys

Describe the lifestyle of Myxinoidea

hagfish: scavengers that live on the sea floor uses keratinized tooth like structures for feeding, slime glands

Describe the lifestyle of Petromyzontoidea

lampreys: closed relative to modern verts, external parasites of fish, larva are suspension feeders, oral suckers, rasping tongue

Name the two members of chordata without a well developed back bone

Petromyzontoidea (lampreys) and Myxinoidea (hagfish)

What makes up the axial skeleton of vertebrates?

vertebral column plus the cranium

What makes up the appendicular skeleton?

pelvic and pectoral girdles and associated paired appendages

What is the sensory organ in fish that can feel vibrations, electrical fields, and molecular gradients in water.

lateral line

Chondrichthyes excretes waste as ________


Chondrichthyes hearts have ___ chambers



bear live young


lay eggs


yolky eggs develop within the reproductive tract of the mother until they hatch, but depend on nutrient stores within the eggs.

The bony endoskeleton in Actinopterygii is hardened by what?

calcium phosphate

What is the operculum?

allows fish to breathe while stationary, covers the gills in Actinopterygii

Actinopterygii excrete waste as ______


What does the swim bladder do?

controls buoyancy

What is a tetrapod?

an animal with four jointed weight-bearing appendages

Amphibians excrete waste as ____________

tadpole: ammonia; adult: urea

Describe respiration in Amphibians

lungs, gills, dermal respiration

Amphibian hearts have ____ chambers

3 (two atria and one ventricle)

What is an amniote?

tetrapods with amniotic eggs (everything past amphibians)

Reptiles excrete waste as ________

uric acid

Reptiles have _______ fertilization


Reptiles have _______ circulation


Qualities that allow birds to fly

light hollow bones, uric acid waste,

Bird hearts have _______ chambers


Describe mammal circulation

4 chambered hearts, double circulation, anucleate red blood cells

Mammals excrete waste as ______


What are monotremes?

oviparious and lay reptilian like eggs

What are marsupials?

placental but embryos develop in external pouches

What are eutherians?

placental mammals

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