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Gross anatomy

aka macroscopic anatomy. study of large body structures in a particular region of the body

Systemic anatomy

body structure studied system by system

Surface anatomy

study of internal structures as they relate to overlying skin surface

Microscopic anatomy

deals with structures too small to be seen by the visible eye

Developmental anatomy

traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span

Renal physiology

concerns kidney function and urine production


explains workings of nervous system

Cardiovascular physiology

examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels

Principle of complementary structure and function

anatomy and physiology are almost inseparable because function always reflects structure

What are the different levels of structural organization from smallest to largest

1. Chemical level
2. Cellular level
3. Tissue level
4. Organ level
5. Organ system level
6. Organismal level

What are necessary life functions?

Maintaining boundaries

What are survival needs

Normal body temp
Appropriate atmospheric pressure

What is essential for homeostatic control

communication within the body is essential which is chiefly accomplished by the nervous and endocrine systems

What are components of homeostatic control mechanisms

1. receptor
2. control center
3. effector

What is negative feedback

the output shuts off original effects of stimulus or reduces intensity

What is homeostatic imbalance

a disturbance or when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over. normally results in disease

What are functional divisions of the body

axial and appendicular parts

What are the planes of the body

sagittal, frontal and transverse




arm pits


abdominal region


Bone at top of shoulder


upper arm




anterior portion of elbow (in between the upper and lower arm)





What is positive feedback

the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerated








back of knee




fingers and toes


bottom of foot


heel of foot




shoulder blade area


spinal region



Different body cavities

dorsal body cavity: cranial cavity and vertebral (spinal) cavity
Ventral body cavity: thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
Oral and digestive body cavities
Nasal cavity
Orbital cavity
Middle ear cavity
Synovial cavity

Forms of energy

Chemical energy
electrical energy
radiant/ electromagnetic cavity

Kinetic energy

energy in action

Potential energy

inactive energy that has the potential to do work

What is a mixture

substances composed of two or more components physically intermixed

What is a solution

homogeneous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids or solids

What is a solvent

substance present in the greatest amount (dissolving medium)

What is a solute

Substances present in smaller amounts

What is a molecule?

combination of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

What is a compound?

When two different kinds of atoms bind, they form molecules of a compound

Types of mixtures


What is a solution

Solute particles are very tiny, do not settle out or scatter light

What is a colloid

the solute particles are larger than in a solution and scatter light. they do not settle out

What is a suspension

Solute particles are very large, settle out and may scatter light

What is an ionic bond

chemical bond between atoms formed by transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other

What is an anion

Atom gains one or more electrons, called electron acceptor. acquires net negative charge.

What is a covalent bond

Electrons are shared between atoms

What is a polar molecule

unequal electron sharing of atoms

What are factors that induce the rate of chemical reactions

particle size

What is the most important and abundant inorganic compound in living material


What are electrolytes

substances that conduct an electrical current in solution. all ions are electrolytes

What are hydrogen bonds

form when a hydrogen atom is already covalently linked to one electronegative atom, is attracted by another electron-hungry atom, so a bridge forms between them

What is an acid

sour taste. a substance that releases hydrogen ions in detectable amounts.also defined as proton donors

What occurs when an acid is put into water

acid dissolves and releases hydrogen ions (protons) and anions

What determines the acidity of a solution

the concentration of protons, NOT the anions

What is the highest acidity on the pH scale?

0-hydrochloric acid

What is an cation

Atom loses an electron and is an electron donor. aquires net positive charge

What is a buffer

resists abrupt and large swings in the pH of the body fluids

What is the neutral number on the pH scale


How does a buffer resist changes to pH in the body

releases hydrogen ions (acting as acids) when the pH rises and binding hydrogen ions (acting as bases) when the pH drops

What is a nonpolar molecule

shared electrons are equally shared and the molecules are electrically balanced

What properties does water have

high heat capacity
high heat of vaporization
polar solvent properties

What is a base

bitter taste, proton acceptors. take up hydrogen ions in detectable amounts

What are organic compounds unique to living systems

lipids (fats)
nucleic acids
ALL contain carbon that is why they are organic compounds

What are carbohydrates

group of molecules that include sugars and starches
contains: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

What is the most basic on the pH scale

14-sodium hydroxide

How are carbohydrates classified

according to size and solubility:
monosaccharide: one sugar
polysaccaride: many sugars
disaccharide: two sugars

What are the building blocks for other carbohydrates

monosaccharides are the monomers, or building blocks

When the carbohydrate is larger what is it's solubility in water

the larger the molecule, the less soluble it is in water

Types of monosaccharides


What is a disaccharide?

double sugar, formed when two monosaccahrides are joined by dehydration synthesis. In the synthesis reaction, a water molecule is lost

Types of disaccharides


How are disaccharides absorbed from the digestive tract into the blood

they are too large to pas thru cell membranes. must be digested to their simple sugar units via hydrolysis (reverse of dehydration synthesis). A water molecule is added to each bond, breaking the bonds and releasing simple sugars

What are carbohydrate functions in the body

provides a ready easily used source of cellular fuel

What are exergonic reactions

reactions that release energy

What are polysaccharides

polymers of simple sugars linked together by dehydration synthesis. Fairly large, insoluble molecules and therefore ideal for storing products

What are lipids

insoluble but dissolve readily in other lipids and organic solvents like alcohol and ether

What is an hydrolysis synthesis

a water molecule is added to each bond, breaking the bonds and releasing the simple sugar units

Types of lipids

triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids and other lipiod substances

What is oxidation-reduction recations

aka redox reactions. decomposition reactions in that they are the basis of all reactions in which food fuels are broken down for energy

What is a dehydration synthesis

when small molecules are formed into larger molecules, a water molecule is removed for every bond formed

Why are oxidation-reduction reactions a special type of reaction

it exchanges electrons between the reactants

What is oxidized

the reactant losing the electron is referred to as the electron donor

What do all lipids contain

oxygen (lower than amount in carbohydrates)

What are endergonic reactions

reactions contain more potential energy in their chemical bonds than did the absorbing

What are triglycerides

neutral fats, commonly known as fats when solid. known as oils when liquid. Made up of two types of building blocks: fatty acids and glycerol

What does fat synthesis involve

attaching three fatty acid chains to a single glycerol molecule by dehydration synthesis

What are saturated fats

fatty acid chains with only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms

What are unsaturated fats

fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms

What is reduced

reactant taking up transferred electrons called proton acceptor

What are phospolipids

modified triglycerides. tail is nonpolar and interacts with inly nonpolar molecules. the head is polar and attracts other polar or charged particles such as water or ions

What provides the bodies most efficient and compact form of stored energy

triglycerides when oxidized

What are steroids

flat molecules made from 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings. fat soluble and contain little oxygen

What is the most important steroid


Where is cholesterol found

cell membranes, raw material for synthesis of vitamin D, steroid hormones and bile salts

What are steroids vital to

homeostasis....without sex hormones- no reproduction and without corticosteroids produced by adrenal glands-could eb fatal

What are the cheif material for building cellular membranes


What lipids are important in the rgulation of blood pressure, inflammation, blood clotting and labor contractions


What lipid participates in the transport of lipids in plasma and is prevelent in nervous tissue


How are triglycerides formed

three fatty acid chains are bound to glycerol by dehydration synthesis

What are inorganic compounds


What are organic compounds

nucleic acids

What constitiues organic compounds

contain carbon

What are proteins

basic structural material of the body but not all are structural material. Some proteins play vital roles in cell function. they are polypeptides containing 50 or more amino acids

What do all proteins contain

many contain: sulfur and phosphorus as well

What proteins have the most varied functions of any molecules in the body

enzymes (biological catalysts)
hemoglobin of the blood
contractile proteins of the muscle

What are the building blocks of proteins

amino acids joined together by dehydration synthesis

What are the two important functional groups of amino acids

amine group
organic acid group

What makes amino acids chemically unique

the R group

Amino acids can act as both an _________ or a ___________

acid-proton donor
base-proton acceptor

What is a peptide bond

bond joining the amine group of an amino acid to the acid carboxyl group of a second amino acid via dehydration synthesis.

What are macromolecules

large, complex molecules that contain from 100 to over 100,000 amino acids

What are the structural level of proteins

1. primary
2. secondary
3. tertiary
4. quaternary

What are fibrous proteins

cheif building materials of the body, also known as structural proteins

What are globular proteins

called functional proteins. water-soluble and play important role in virturally all biological processes

What is denatured

proteins unfold due to hydrogen bonds breaking when the pH drops or the temp rises

Function of plasma membrane

external cell barrier
acts in transport of substances into or out of cell
maintains resting potential essential for functioning of excitable cells
contains receptors for communication
forms intracellular connections
acts as a physical barrier to enclose cell contents
regulates material movement in and out of cell

Structure of plasma membrane

phospoholipid bilayer that contains cholesterol and proteins (intergral and peripheral) and some carbohydrates(externally)

What is the phospholipid bilayer

two parallel sheets of phospholipid molecules lying tail to tail. has a polar head which is charged and hydrophilic and a tail which is uncharged, nonploar and is hydrophobic

function of cytoplasm

place of many metabolic processes of the cell
store nutrients and dissolved solutes

What does the cytoplasm consist of


function of cytosol

provides support for organelles
serves as viscious medium through which diffusion occurs

function of inclusions

stores materials: nutrients, wastes, and cell products

structure of inclusions

droplets of melanin, protein, glycogen granules or lipid; usually non membrane bound

function of mitochondira

powerhouse of cell
site of ATP synthesis

structure of mitochondira

rodlike, double membrane structures, inner membrane folded into projections called cristae

function of ribosomes

site of protein synthesis

how are ribosomes formed

two subunits are formed in nucleus, then they assembled in the cytosol

function of rough ER

-synthesizes proteins for secretion, new proteins for plasma membrane and lysosomal enzymes
-transports and stores molecules
-sugar groups are attached to proteins within the cristernae
-proteins are bound within vesicles for transport to the golgi and other site
-external face synthesizes phospholipids

Structure of rough ER

flattened network of membrane sacs called the cisternae, coils through cytoplasm
externally studded with ribosomes

function of smooth ER

site of lipid and steroid synthesis
lipid metabolism
drug and alcohol detoxification

structure of smooth ER

interconnected network of membrane tubules and vesicles, no ribosomes

function of lysosomes

site of intracellular digestion
removes old or damaged organelles
autolyze (self destruct)

function of peroxisomes

enzymes detoxify a number of toxic substances
most important enzyme, catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide to water during metabolism

function of microtubules

supports cell
give cell shape
involved in intracellular and cellular movement
forms centrioles, cilia and flagella,if present

function of microfilaments

involved in muscle contraction and other types of intracellular movement
help form the cytoskeleton
separates dividing cells

function of intermediate filaments

resist mechanical forces acting on cell
provides structural support and stabilizes cell junctions

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