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Anatomy 1 Exam

Gross anatomy
aka macroscopic anatomy. study of large body structures in a particular region of the body
Systemic anatomy
body structure studied system by system
Surface anatomy
study of internal structures as they relate to overlying skin surface
Microscopic anatomy
deals with structures too small to be seen by the visible eye
Developmental anatomy
traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span
Renal physiology
concerns kidney function and urine production
explains workings of nervous system
Cardiovascular physiology
examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
Principle of complementary structure and function
anatomy and physiology are almost inseparable because function always reflects structure
What are the different levels of structural organization from smallest to largest
1. Chemical level
2. Cellular level
3. Tissue level
4. Organ level
5. Organ system level
6. Organismal level
What are necessary life functions?
Maintaining boundaries
What are survival needs
Normal body temp
Appropriate atmospheric pressure
What is essential for homeostatic control
communication within the body is essential which is chiefly accomplished by the nervous and endocrine systems
What are components of homeostatic control mechanisms
1. receptor
2. control center
3. effector
What is negative feedback
the output shuts off original effects of stimulus or reduces intensity
What is homeostatic imbalance
a disturbance or when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over. normally results in disease
What are functional divisions of the body
axial and appendicular parts
What are the planes of the body
sagittal, frontal and transverse
arm pits
abdominal region
Bone at top of shoulder
upper arm
anterior portion of elbow (in between the upper and lower arm)
What is positive feedback
the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerated
back of knee
fingers and toes
bottom of foot
heel of foot
shoulder blade area
spinal region
Different body cavities
dorsal body cavity: cranial cavity and vertebral (spinal) cavity
Ventral body cavity: thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
Oral and digestive body cavities
Nasal cavity
Orbital cavity
Middle ear cavity
Synovial cavity
Forms of energy
Chemical energy
electrical energy
radiant/ electromagnetic cavity
Kinetic energy
energy in action
Potential energy
inactive energy that has the potential to do work
What is a mixture
substances composed of two or more components physically intermixed
What is a solution
homogeneous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids or solids
What is a solvent
substance present in the greatest amount (dissolving medium)
What is a solute
Substances present in smaller amounts
What is a molecule?
combination of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
What is a compound?
When two different kinds of atoms bind, they form molecules of a compound
Types of mixtures
What is a solution
Solute particles are very tiny, do not settle out or scatter light
What is a colloid
the solute particles are larger than in a solution and scatter light. they do not settle out
What is a suspension
Solute particles are very large, settle out and may scatter light
What is an ionic bond
chemical bond between atoms formed by transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other
What is an anion
Atom gains one or more electrons, called electron acceptor. acquires net negative charge.
What is a covalent bond
Electrons are shared between atoms
What is a polar molecule
unequal electron sharing of atoms
What are factors that induce the rate of chemical reactions
particle size
What is the most important and abundant inorganic compound in living material
What are electrolytes
substances that conduct an electrical current in solution. all ions are electrolytes
What are hydrogen bonds
form when a hydrogen atom is already covalently linked to one electronegative atom, is attracted by another electron-hungry atom, so a bridge forms between them
What is an acid
sour taste. a substance that releases hydrogen ions in detectable amounts.also defined as proton donors
What occurs when an acid is put into water
acid dissolves and releases hydrogen ions (protons) and anions
What determines the acidity of a solution
the concentration of protons, NOT the anions
What is the highest acidity on the pH scale?
0-hydrochloric acid
What is an cation
Atom loses an electron and is an electron donor. aquires net positive charge
What is a buffer
resists abrupt and large swings in the pH of the body fluids
What is the neutral number on the pH scale
How does a buffer resist changes to pH in the body
releases hydrogen ions (acting as acids) when the pH rises and binding hydrogen ions (acting as bases) when the pH drops
What is a nonpolar molecule
shared electrons are equally shared and the molecules are electrically balanced
What properties does water have
high heat capacity
high heat of vaporization
polar solvent properties
What is a base
bitter taste, proton acceptors. take up hydrogen ions in detectable amounts
What are organic compounds unique to living systems
lipids (fats)
nucleic acids
ALL contain carbon that is why they are organic compounds
What are carbohydrates
group of molecules that include sugars and starches
contains: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
What is the most basic on the pH scale
14-sodium hydroxide
How are carbohydrates classified
according to size and solubility:
monosaccharide: one sugar
polysaccaride: many sugars
disaccharide: two sugars
What are the building blocks for other carbohydrates
monosaccharides are the monomers, or building blocks
When the carbohydrate is larger what is it's solubility in water
the larger the molecule, the less soluble it is in water
Types of monosaccharides
What is a disaccharide?
double sugar, formed when two monosaccahrides are joined by dehydration synthesis. In the synthesis reaction, a water molecule is lost
Types of disaccharides
How are disaccharides absorbed from the digestive tract into the blood
they are too large to pas thru cell membranes. must be digested to their simple sugar units via hydrolysis (reverse of dehydration synthesis). A water molecule is added to each bond, breaking the bonds and releasing simple sugars
What are carbohydrate functions in the body
provides a ready easily used source of cellular fuel
What are exergonic reactions
reactions that release energy
What are polysaccharides
polymers of simple sugars linked together by dehydration synthesis. Fairly large, insoluble molecules and therefore ideal for storing products
What are lipids
insoluble but dissolve readily in other lipids and organic solvents like alcohol and ether
What is an hydrolysis synthesis
a water molecule is added to each bond, breaking the bonds and releasing the simple sugar units
Types of lipids
triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids and other lipiod substances
What is oxidation-reduction recations
aka redox reactions. decomposition reactions in that they are the basis of all reactions in which food fuels are broken down for energy
What is a dehydration synthesis
when small molecules are formed into larger molecules, a water molecule is removed for every bond formed
Why are oxidation-reduction reactions a special type of reaction
it exchanges electrons between the reactants
What is oxidized
the reactant losing the electron is referred to as the electron donor
What do all lipids contain
oxygen (lower than amount in carbohydrates)
What are endergonic reactions
reactions contain more potential energy in their chemical bonds than did the absorbing
What are triglycerides
neutral fats, commonly known as fats when solid. known as oils when liquid. Made up of two types of building blocks: fatty acids and glycerol
What does fat synthesis involve
attaching three fatty acid chains to a single glycerol molecule by dehydration synthesis
What are saturated fats
fatty acid chains with only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms
What are unsaturated fats
fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms
What is reduced
reactant taking up transferred electrons called proton acceptor
What are phospolipids
modified triglycerides. tail is nonpolar and interacts with inly nonpolar molecules. the head is polar and attracts other polar or charged particles such as water or ions
What provides the bodies most efficient and compact form of stored energy
triglycerides when oxidized
What are steroids
flat molecules made from 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings. fat soluble and contain little oxygen
What is the most important steroid
Where is cholesterol found
cell membranes, raw material for synthesis of vitamin D, steroid hormones and bile salts
What are steroids vital to
homeostasis....without sex hormones- no reproduction and without corticosteroids produced by adrenal glands-could eb fatal
What are the cheif material for building cellular membranes
What lipids are important in the rgulation of blood pressure, inflammation, blood clotting and labor contractions
What lipid participates in the transport of lipids in plasma and is prevelent in nervous tissue
How are triglycerides formed
three fatty acid chains are bound to glycerol by dehydration synthesis
What are inorganic compounds
What are organic compounds
nucleic acids
What constitiues organic compounds
contain carbon
What are proteins
basic structural material of the body but not all are structural material. Some proteins play vital roles in cell function. they are polypeptides containing 50 or more amino acids
What do all proteins contain
many contain: sulfur and phosphorus as well
What proteins have the most varied functions of any molecules in the body
enzymes (biological catalysts)
hemoglobin of the blood
contractile proteins of the muscle
What are the building blocks of proteins
amino acids joined together by dehydration synthesis
What are the two important functional groups of amino acids
amine group
organic acid group
What makes amino acids chemically unique
the R group
Amino acids can act as both an _________ or a ___________
acid-proton donor
base-proton acceptor
What is a peptide bond
bond joining the amine group of an amino acid to the acid carboxyl group of a second amino acid via dehydration synthesis.
What are macromolecules
large, complex molecules that contain from 100 to over 100,000 amino acids
What are the structural level of proteins
1. primary
2. secondary
3. tertiary
4. quaternary
What are fibrous proteins
cheif building materials of the body, also known as structural proteins
What are globular proteins
called functional proteins. water-soluble and play important role in virturally all biological processes
What is denatured
proteins unfold due to hydrogen bonds breaking when the pH drops or the temp rises
Function of plasma membrane
external cell barrier
acts in transport of substances into or out of cell
maintains resting potential essential for functioning of excitable cells
contains receptors for communication
forms intracellular connections
acts as a physical barrier to enclose cell contents
regulates material movement in and out of cell
Structure of plasma membrane
phospoholipid bilayer that contains cholesterol and proteins (intergral and peripheral) and some carbohydrates(externally)
What is the phospholipid bilayer
two parallel sheets of phospholipid molecules lying tail to tail. has a polar head which is charged and hydrophilic and a tail which is uncharged, nonploar and is hydrophobic
function of cytoplasm
place of many metabolic processes of the cell
store nutrients and dissolved solutes
What does the cytoplasm consist of
function of cytosol
provides support for organelles
serves as viscious medium through which diffusion occurs
function of inclusions
stores materials: nutrients, wastes, and cell products
structure of inclusions
droplets of melanin, protein, glycogen granules or lipid; usually non membrane bound
function of mitochondira
powerhouse of cell
site of ATP synthesis
structure of mitochondira
rodlike, double membrane structures, inner membrane folded into projections called cristae
function of ribosomes
site of protein synthesis
how are ribosomes formed
two subunits are formed in nucleus, then they assembled in the cytosol
function of rough ER
-synthesizes proteins for secretion, new proteins for plasma membrane and lysosomal enzymes
-transports and stores molecules
-sugar groups are attached to proteins within the cristernae
-proteins are bound within vesicles for transport to the golgi and other site
-external face synthesizes phospholipids
Structure of rough ER
flattened network of membrane sacs called the cisternae, coils through cytoplasm
externally studded with ribosomes
function of smooth ER
site of lipid and steroid synthesis
lipid metabolism
drug and alcohol detoxification
structure of smooth ER
interconnected network of membrane tubules and vesicles, no ribosomes
function of lysosomes
site of intracellular digestion
removes old or damaged organelles
autolyze (self destruct)
function of peroxisomes
enzymes detoxify a number of toxic substances
most important enzyme, catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide to water during metabolism
function of microtubules
supports cell
give cell shape
involved in intracellular and cellular movement
forms centrioles, cilia and flagella,if present
function of microfilaments
involved in muscle contraction and other types of intracellular movement
help form the cytoskeleton
separates dividing cells
function of intermediate filaments
resist mechanical forces acting on cell
provides structural support and stabilizes cell junctions
structure of microfilaments
actin protein monomers formed into filaments
structure of microtubules
cylindrical structures made of tubulin proteins
structure of intermediate filaments
protein fibers
fucntion of centrioles
organize microtubule network during mitosis to form spindle and asters.
forms bases of cilia and flagella
fucntion of cilia
coordinated movement creates unidirectional current that propels substances across cell surface
fucntion of flagella
propels cell; sperm
function of microvilli
increases surface area for absorption
function of nucleoli
site of ribosome subunit manufacture
synthesizes rRNA
Where are glycolipids found
outer plasma membrane of a cell
what is an isotonic solution
cells retain normal shape and size
same solute/water concentration outside and inside of the cell
water moves in and out
what are membrane junctions
act to bind cells together
types of junctions
tight junctions
gap junctions
what is a hypotonic solution
takes on water by osmosis until cell becomes bloated then bursts
has a higher concentration of solutes inside the cell than outside the cell
function of desmosomes
anchoring junctions bind neighboring cells together
distributes tension throughout cellular sheet and reduces chance of tearing when subjected to pulling forces
function of tight junctions
impermeable junction that encircles cell
can be leaky and may allow certain types of ions to pass
functions of gap junctions
communicating junction between cells
cells are connected by hollow cylinders called connexons
What are tasks performed by membrane proteins
receptors for signal transduction
attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix
enzymatic activity
intercellular joining
cell-cell recognition
What is passive transport
substances move across membrane without any energy input from the cell
what is active transport
cell provides metabolic energy (ATP) needed to move substances across membrane
what are the main types of passive transport
diffusion and filtration
what is diffusion
molecules or ions move from an area of high to an area of low concentration, that is down or along their concentration gradient
what is the driving force of diffusion
kinetic energy of the molecules themselves
what is the speed of diffusion influenced by
molecule size- the smaller molecule, the faster it is
temerature- the warmer, the faster it is
during diffusion, what happens when equilibrium is reached in a closed container
molecules move equally in each direction ( no net movement)
What is a hypertonic solution
Cell shrinks due to water loss by osmosis
lower concentration of solutes inside than outside the cell
what constitues a molecule to diffuse through the plasma membrane
1. lipid soluble
2. small enough to pass thru mem channels
3. or assisted by carrier molecule
what is simple diffusion
nonpolar and lipid soluble substances diffuse directly thru lipid bilayer
examples of substances that diffuse thru the membrane via simple diffusion
oxygen, carbon dioxide and fat soluble vitamins
where does oxygen diffuse into and from where
since oxygen concentration is higher in blood than in the tissue cells, oxygen continuosly diffuses from the blood into the cells
where does carbon dioxide diffuse into and from where
since carbon dioxide has a higher concentration within cells, it diffuses from tissue cells into the blood
what is a concentration gradient
when ions or molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
what is facilitated diffusion
certain molecules are unable to pass thru the lipid bilayer, instead they move passively thru the membrane by facilitated diffusion in which the transported substance either binds to protein carriers in the membrane and are ferried across or they move thru water filled protein channels
what are carriers
transmembrane intergral proteins that show specificity for molecules of a certain polar substance or class of substances that are too large to pass thru membrane channels
examples of molecules which use facilitated diffusion
glucose and other sugars, some amino acids and ions
what are the steps involved in carrier-mediated diffusion
binding of a substrate changes the shape of the carrier allow it to envelop and then release the substance which shields it from the nonpolar regions of the membrane
what is channel mediated diffusion
transmembrane proteins that serve to transport substances through aqueous channels from one side of the membrane to the other
different types of channels
leakage channels
gated or controlled channels
what are leakage channels
always open and allow ion and water fluxes according to concentration gradients
what are gated or controlled channels
opened and closed by various chemical or electrical signals, passive transport, along the concentration gradient
When a substance crosses the membrane by simple diffusion how is the rate of diffusion controlled
it is not controllable because the lipid solubility of the membrane isn't immediately changable
what is osmosis
diffusion of a solvent such as water thru selective permeable membrane
what are water specific channels constructed by transmembrane proteins called
where are aquaporins abundant
found in most all cell types, abundant in red blood cells and cells involved in water balance (kidney tubule cells)
When a substance crosses the membrane by facilitated diffusion how is the rate of diffusion controlled
controlled because the permeability of the membrane can be altered by regulating the activity or number of individual carriers or channels
when does osmosis occur
when water concentration differs on the two sides of the membrane
what occurs if distilled water is on both sides of a membrane
no net osmosis occurs even tho water molecules move in both directions thru the membrane
what happens to the water concentration when the solute concentration on the two sides of the membrane are different
water concentration differs as well because as the solute concentration increases, the water concentration decreases
what constitues the decrease of water concentration by solutes
depends on the number of solute particles because one solute molecule or ion displaces a one water molecule
what is the definition of osmolarity
total concentration of all solute particles in a solution
what passive transports occur directly thru the plasma membrane and are not selective processes
simple diffusion and osmosis
what constitutes whether a molecule can pass thru a plasma membrane in simple diffusion and osmosis
its size or solubility in lipids
What passive transport system is highly selective
facilitated diffusion
what are types of active transport
solute pumps
primary and secondary active transport
vesticular transport
what does active transport require (two things)
energy (ATP)
carrier proteins that combine specifically and reversibly with the transported substances
Difference between active and passive transport?
passive- no energy input from cell required, follows concentration gradient
active-requires ATP and moves against concentration gradient
in primary active transport where does the energy come from
directly from hydrolysis of ATP
in secondary active transport where does the energy come from
indirectly from by energy stored in ionic gradients created by operation of primary active transport
what occurs in primary active transport
hydrolysis of ATP results in phosphorylation of the transport protein which causes the protein to change shape in a manner so that it pumps the bound solute across the membrane
types of primary active transport
sodium potassium pump
calcium and hydrogen pumps
steps of sodium potassium pump
1. cytoplasmic Na+ binds to the pump protein
2. binding of Na+ promotes phosphorylation of the protein by ATP
3. phosphorylation causes the protein to change shape, expelling Na+ to the outside of the cell
4. extracellular K+ binds to pump protein
5. K+ binding triggers release of phosphate. pump protein returns to original conformation
6. K+ is released from pump protein and Na+ sites are ready to bind Na+ again
7. cycle repeats
In the body what is the concentration of potassium K+
inside: 10 times higher than outside of the cell
In the body what is the concentration of sodium Na+
outside: 10 times higher than inside of cell
what are the ionic concentration differences of Na+ and K+ essential for
excitable cells like muscle and nerve cells to function normally and for all body cells to maintain normal fluid level
what is one pump that can drive the secondary active transport
a single ATP powered pump, like the sodium-potassium pump can indirectly drive the secondary active transport of several other solutes
steps involved in secondary active transport
1. ATP-driven Na+-K+ pump stores energy by creating a steep concentration gradient for Na+ entry into the cell
2. as Na+ diffuses back across the membrane thru a membrane cotransporter protein, it drives glucose against its concentration gradient into the cell
what is vesicular transport
fluids containing large particles and small particles are transported across cell membranes inside membranous sacs called vesicles
what is exocytosis
ejects substances from the cell interior to the extracellular fluid
what is transcytosis
moving substances into, across and then outside the cell
what is vesticular trafficking
moving substances from one area (organelle) to another
steps involved in endocytosis
1. coated pit ingests substance
2. protein vesicle detaches
3. coat proteins detach and are recycled to plasma membrane
4. uncoated vesicle fuses with a sorting vesicle called an endosome
5. transport vesicle containing membrane components moves to the plasma membrane for recycling
6. fused vesicle may either fuse with lysosome for digestion of its contents or deliver its contents to the plasma membrane on the opposite side of the cell (transcytosis)
Different types of endocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis
what is phagocytosis
cell engulfs some relatively large or solid material, like bacteria, cell debris or inanimate particles. the cell "eats" the particles
what is endocytosis
cell ingests small patches of the plasma membrane and moves substances from the cell exterior to the interior of the cell
what happens in phagocytosis
particle binds to cells receptor, pseudopods form and flow around the particle and engulf it. usually it then fuses with a lysosome and its contents are digested
what are considered experts at phagocytosis
macrophages and certain white blood cells
what is pinocytosis
"cell drinking"
steps of pinocytosis
a bit of infolding plasma membrane which begins as a clathrin-coated pit, surrounds a small volume of extracellular fluid containing dissolved molecules. the droplet enters the cell and fuses with an endosome.
why is pinocytosis important
important in cells that absorb nutrients like cells that line the intestines
what is receptor-mediated endocytosis
main mechanism for specific endocytosis and transcytosis of most macromolecules by body cells. equisitely selective.
steps involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis
extracellular substances bind to specific receptors proteins in regions of coated pits, enables cells to ingest and concentrate specific substances (ligands) in protein coated vesicles. ligands may be simply released inside cell or combined with a lysosome to digest contents. receptors are recycled to the plasma membrane in vesicles
what type(s) of endocytosis bind to receptors
phagocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis
what are the steps involved with exocytosis
1. membrane bound vesicle migrates to plasma membrane
2. there, proteins at vesicle surface (v-SNARE's) bind with t-SNARES's (plasma membrane proteins)
3. the vesicle and plasma membrane fuse and a pore opens up
4. vesicle contents released to exterior of cell
What is the purpose of converting DNA to RNA
because DNA cannot be used without a decoder and it cannot move outside the nucleus, therefore it needs a decoder and messenger which is RNA
types of RNA
mRNA-messenger RNA
tRNA-transfer RNA
rRNA-ribosomal RNA
what is translation
information carried by the mRNA is decoded and used to assemble polypeptides
what two things must occur to mRNA before translation can begin but after transcription has taken place
-before the newly made RNA can be used as a messenger, it must be processed or edited (sections corresponding to introns must be removed or spliced)
-also a number of specific RNA binding proteins, mRNA complex proteins must become associated with it
What are the mRNA complex proteins responsible for before the mRNA can continue with translation
guide its export from nucleus, determine its localization, translation and stability and it checks for premature termination codons
what mechanism allows cells to concentrate material that is only present in small amounts in the extracellular fluid
receptor-mediated endocytosis
what is transcription
DNA's information is decoded into mRNA
phases involved in transcription
1. initiation
2. elongation
3. termination
How does transcription start
gene activating chemicals called transcription factors stimulate the loosening of the histones at the site-to-be of gene transcription and then bind to the promoter
what is RNA polymerase and it's function
enzyme that oversees the synthesis of mRNA, correctly at the promoter. then RNA polymermase can initiate transcription
what are the major steps involving protein synthesis
transcription and translation
steps during transcription
1. initiation: RNA polymerase pulls apart DNA strands so transcription can begin at start point in promoter
2. elongation: using incoming RNA nucleotides as substrates, RNA polymerase aligns them with comp. DNA bases and then links them together. As RNA polymerase elongates the mRNA strand, it unwinds the DNA strand in front of it and rewinds the helix behind it
3. Termination: when polymerase reaches special base sequence called termination signal, transcription ends and the newly formed mRNA pulls off DNA template
What is the promoter
special DNA sequence that contains start point. specifies where mRNA synthesis start and which DNA strand will serve as the template strand
what happens during translation
the language of nucleic acids (base sequence) is translated into the language of proteins (amino acids)
what is the genetic code
rules by which the basic sequence of a gene is translated into an amino acid sequence
how many amino acids are there
what is a codon
three-base sequence of DNA or the corresponding three-base sequence of mRNA
How many neucleotides are there
4 of RNA (or DNA)
how many possible codons are there
4 to the third power, or 64 (three of them are stop codons)
where does translation take place and what
kind(s) of RNA are involved
in cytoplasm
tRNA, mRNA and rRNA
events of translation
1. after mRNA synthesis in nucleus, mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches to a ribosome
2. translation begins as incoming aminoacyl-tRNA recognizes the complementary codon calling for it at the A site on the ribosome. it hydrogen bonds to the codon via its anticodon
3. as the ribosome moves along the mRNA, each codon is read in sequence, a new amino acid is added to the growing protein chain and the tRNA in the A site is translocated to the P site
4. once its amino acid is released from the P site, tRNA is ratcheted to the E site and then released to recenter the cytoplasmic pool, ready to be recharged with a new amino acid. the polypeptide is completed when the stop codon is read
how are epithelial cells classified
cell layers and shapes of cells
what are the different types of epithelial cells classified by layers
stratified and simple
different shapes of epithelial cells
different types of tissues found in the body
epithelial tissue
muscle tissue
nervous tissue
connective tissue
what is epithelial tissue
sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
functions of epithelial tissue
sensory reception
function of simple squamous epithelium
allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important
locations of simple squamous epithelium
kidney glomeruli
air sacs of lungs
lining of heart, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels
lining of the ventral cavity
functions of simple cuboidal epithelium
secretion and absorption
location of simple cuboidal epithelium
kidney tubules, ducts, secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface
function of simple columnar epithelium
secretion of mucus, enzymes and other substances
ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action
location of simple columnar epithelium
nonciliated type: lines most digestive tract (stomach to anal canal), gallbladder and excretory ducts and some glands
ciliated: lines small bronchi, uterine tubes and some regions of nucleus