Anatomy 2 lecture (Chapter 22) - Respiratory System
Anatomy 2, Chapter 22, The Respiratory system
Terms in this set (63)
is breathing, the movement of air in and out of the lungs
is the Gas exchange between the blood and air filled chambers of the lungs
is the Exchange of gases between the blood and the tissues
are zones where rigid conduits for transport of air to respiratory passages, like Trachea, Larynx, Bronchi, and they cleanses, humidifies, and warms incoming air
is the actual site of gas exchange, like the Bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, Alveolar sacs, Microscopic structures
Nose Hairs!, They filter course particles from entering the respiratory pathways, and are Coarse nasal hairs that act as the first line of defense for the respiratory system. Covered with sebum (a greasy substance secreted by the sebaceous glands of the nose). Sebum helps to trap large particles and also keeps the nose hairs soft & pliable.
They Contains receptors for the sense of smell, The mucous membrane lining the top of the nasal sinuses; contains the cilia of the olfactory receptors,
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, mucous and serous secretions contain lysozyme and defensins. Cilia move contaminated mucus posteriorly to throat, inspired air is warmed by plexuses of capillaries and veins, and sensory nerve ending triggers sneezing. Superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae. Protrude from the lateral walls, increase mucosal area, enhance air turbulance.
Mucus secreting cells in Respiratory mucous membranes, columnar epithelial cells that contain a large vacuole with mucus
secretion is serous fluid; watery and thin, lines body cavities and high in enzymes
Are Antibacterial Enzymes
Are Antibiotics that aid in bacterial defense
A cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea, passed the epiglottis, is the voice box
is how sounds are produced with the opening and closing of the ______, with a post-laryngeal filtering for specificity, The wide is for producing low tones, and the thin is for producing high tones, and the loudness depends on the force of the expelled air, increasing vibration within the vocal folds
is a long, flexible tube that directs air to the bronchi,, Anterior to Bronchi then splits in to bronchi; for conduction of air; hyaline cartilege (15-20 incomplete rings); has ciliated epithelium, is also called the windpipe
Airways in the lungs that lead from the trachea to the bronchioles. is still part of the conduction zone,
Airways in the lungs that lead from the bronchi to the alveoli.
Clusters of individual alveoli
the subdivisions of the respiratory bronchioles, which terminate in the alveolar sacs that resemble clusters of grapes.
type I cells
are simple squamous epithelia cells with a fused basal lamina form the respiratory membrane, and they secrete angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) for blood pressure regulation
type II cells
are cuboidal cells found to secrete surfactant
allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized if alveolar ducts collapse by disease or damage
are dust cells, that destroy microorganism and pathogens, that replace over 2 million per hour!
are organs that occupy the entire thoracic cavity except the mediastinal septum (surrounding the heart), it receives blood from the pulmonary arteries (from the heart) and are drained by the pulmonary veins (towards the heart), and are surrounded by pleura (parietal and visceral)
Force exerted by the weight of the air, and is P(atm) = 760mmHg
is the pressure in the alveoli, rising and falling with the phases of breathing, but always equilibrating to external atmospheric pressure.
is the pressure in the pleural cavity P(ip) also is fluctuates, but remains about 4mmHg below P(atm)
is the pressure of a gas is inversely related to its volume (P1,V1 = P2,V2)
is the act of The Uptake of air into the lungs
is the passive process based on the elasticity of lungs, The ribs relax, lungs recoil, decreasing thoracic and interpulmonary volumes
is a detergent-like complex of proteins and lipids produced by type II cells in the lungs, and interferes with the cohesiveness of water molecules, allowing expansion, and the surface tension is reduced, allowing lungs to expand
alveolar surface tension
The surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli in the lungs; water has a high surface tension, and the molecules are more attracted to one another at surfaces than to other types of (liquid versus gas) creating tension, and the type II cells creates Surfactant which is a detergent-like complex of proteins and lipids to reduce the surface tension
The ability of the lung to stretch, Lung distensible, (is diminished by Fibrosis, blkacage of passages, low surfactant, and decreased thoracic expansion)
Air in and out normally (500 ml)
inspiratory reserve volume
is the air forced beyond tidal volume (2100-3200 ml)
expiratory reserve volume
is the air forced out of lungs (1200 ml)
is the air left in the lungs, to prevent collapse
is the amount of air that can be inspired after tidal expiration (sum of tidal and inspiratory reserve volumes)
functional residual volume
is the amount of air left in the lungs after tidal expiration (combined inspiratory and expiratory volumes)
is the total amount of exchangeable air (~4800 ml)
total lung capacity
is the the sum of all capacities (~6000 ml)
Dalton's law of partial pressures
is the total pressure exerted by a mixture is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture, and each gasses pressure,or partial pressure, is directly proportional to it's percentage
is in a mixture of gas, each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure
Breathing - movement of diaphragm and rib cage that bring air into and out of the lungs.
is the process of a body delivery blood to a capillary bed
Hemoglobin-oxygen combination (HbO2), is a fully or partially saturated heme group,
is reduced hemoglobin (HHb)
Decreased Attraction of Hb to O2, Right shift caused by an increase in PCO2.
H2CO3 (CO2 + H20 -> H2CO3 -> HCO3 + H+)
enzyme that changes carbon dioxide into water so it is not poisonous to the body
is an Enzyme that catalyzes the conversion to carbonic acid in RBC's
is a movement of chloride ions move from the plasma to RBC's to counterbalance
is the effect that less oxygen in the blood, the more the blood can carry carbon dioxide ( the effects allows for the formation of more bicarboinate ions)
Airway obstruction associated with emphysema and chronic bronchitis (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
A chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing.
is a bacterial infection by the bacterial Mycobacterium tuberculosis
#1 Cancer in the US
Inflammation of the bronchi, An irritation of the breathing passages in which the small passages become narrower than normal and may be clogged with mucus.
A form of COPD, a condition that limits the flow of air when you breathe out. It occurs when the air sacs at the ends of your smallest air passages (bronchioles) are gradually destroyed. Smoking is the leading cause.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Cancer of the bronchi epithelia of the lung
Cancer of the Peripheral lung areas
Small cell carcinoma
Cancer of the primary bronchi of the lungs