S/S: thirst, restless, agitated, weakness, lethargy, confusion, stupor, seizures, coma, muscle twitching, low grade fever, absence of DTR, dry, flushed skin, dry, sticky tongue, SOB, HTN 3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L
Maintains ICF osmotic pressure
< 3.5 = hypokalemia
> 5.0 = hyperkalemia
When out of balance think HEART!!!!
Food Source: Bananas, peaches, figs, cantaloupe, oranges, melons, green leafy veggies, avocados, broccoli, baked potatoes, dried fruits, bran cereal, molasses, dried beans, raisins, spinach
S/S: lethargy, weakness, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, anorexia, irregular pulse (rapid, thready). muscle cramping, decreased DTR, paralytic ileus, constipation, altered airway responsiveness, decreased cerebral funcion, confusion, coma, polyuria, polydipsia S/S: anxiety, oliguria, tachycardia, bradycardia, muscle weakness, abdominal cramps, decreased urine output, respiratory distress, ECG changes, dysrhythmias, hyperreflexia S/S: muscle spasms (charley horse), paresthesia (twitching of hands and feet or around mouth), increased or decreased HR with weak, thready pulse, hyperactive bowel sounds and reflexes, brittle bones, abdominal cramping and diarrhea, tetany (increased neuroexcitablility and sustained muscle contraction may occur if untreated, convulsions), laryngeal spasms/stridor, dysphagia
Trousseau's sign = carpal spasms induced by inflating a bp cuff on the arm above systolic pressure, wait 3 miniutes to see if spasms occur.
Chvostek's signg = contraction of facial muscles in response to a tap over the facial nerve in front of the ear
S/S: decreased memory span, confusion, disorentation, fatigue, muscle weakness, constipation/distended abdomen, hypoactive BS, decreased DTR, blood clot, N/V, cardiac arrhythmias, increased BP, kidney stones