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Federalist; George Washington's vice president; succeeded Washington as president (ran against Jefferson); most of his support from New England; he won very narrowly (71:68 electoral votes)
Federalist; first Secretary of Treasury; proposed Bank of the United States; proposed assumption; "Father of National Debt"; used national debt to keep the union together (shareholders would have a stake in the new government); proposed tariff laws; wanted protection for well-to-do manufacturing groups; feared war with British because his economic development plan rested on trade with Britain; hated John Adams and secretly plotted with members of the cabinent against him
crafty French foreign minister who refused to meet with American envoys in Paris in 1797 (XYZ Affair); later let it be known that if the Americans would send a new minister, he would be received with proper respect (because the French could not afford another foe)
the belief that what the Constitution did not forbid it permitted; proposed by Hamilton
a theory popular among English political philosophers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; as applied to America by Jeffersonians, it meant that the thirteen sovereign states, in creating the federal government, had entered into a "compact" or contract, regarding its jurisdiciton; the national government was a creation of the states; the individual states were therefore the final judges of whether their agent had broken the "compact" by overstepping the authority originally granted; used in the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
Bank of the United States
proposed by Hamilton and modeled after the Bank of England; powerful private institution of which the government would be the major stockholder and in which the federal Treasury would deposit its surplus monies; the federal funds would stimulate business by remaining in circulation; would also print urgently needed paper money, thus providing a sound and stable national currency; Jefferson saw no need for such a financial octopus; strict v. loose construction; created by Congress in 1791, chartered for twenty years, located in Philadelphia, was to have a capital of $10 million, one-fifth of it owned by the federal government, people quickly bought stock
at the beginning it was surprising peaceful and imposed constitutional shackles on Louis XVI, Americans considered it an extension of their revolution; 1792, France declared war on Austria and proclaimed itself a republic, Americans cheered and sang French songs; French king beheaded in 1793, the church was attacked, and the head-rolling Reign of Terror began (Americans disappointed); Britain began to get involved and then America was up to bat
issued by Washington in 1793, shortly after the outbreak of war between Britain and France; proclaimed the government's official neutrality and warned American citizens to be impartial toward both armed camps; pro-French Jeffersonians enraged and pro-British Federalists happy; helped the French anyways because it allowed Americans to ship food to French West Indies (if they had declared war, the British would've blockaded the American coast)
written by Madison as an Amendment to the Constitution, it declares that specifying certain rights "shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people"
1795 treaty with Spain in which Spain granted the Americans free navigation of the Mississippi and the large disputed territory north of Florida (Spain feared American-British alliance because of Jay's Treaty)
Washington strongly advised the avoidance of permanent alliances (like the Franco-American Treaty of 1778); his resignation contributed to establishing a two-term tradition for American presidents
believed in rule by the informed masses, friendliness toward extension of democracy, weak central government to preserve states' rights, strict construction, no special favors for businesses/manufacturers, agriculture, pro-French, national debt a bane, rigid economy, reduction of federal officeholders, encouragement to state banks, free speech and press, minimal navy for coastal defense; many of them were from the South or Southwest in agricultural areas and backcountry
Judiciary Act of 1789
created by the first Congress to create effective federal courts; organized the Supreme Court, with a chief justice and five associates, as well as federal district and circuit courts, and established the office of attorney general
first Secretary of State; proposed strict construction; lost election to succeed Washington, so he became John Adams's vice president; leader of Democratic-Republicans; supported slavery so that poor whites didn't have to supply cheap labor and could own property
first chief justice of the United States; created Jay's Treaty; Federalist, believed in aristocracy
the belief that all powers not specifically granted to the central government were reserved to the states under the Constitution; the belief that what the Constitution did not permit it forbade; proposed by Jefferson
the act of the federal government taking on the debts of the states that they had acquired during the Revolutionary War; proposed by Hamilton, this led to taking on $21.5 million in state debts; states with heavy debts, like Massachusetts, were delighted but states with small debts, like Virginia, were upset; led to the national capital being moved to Virginia (from New York)
tax on imported goods; proposed by Hamiton to bring in revenue and protect infant industries in America
a refusal of the states to accept a federal law, part of Jefferson's interpretation of compact theory; in terms of Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions in response to Alien and Sedition Acts
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the Constitution to safeguard some of the most precious American principles (freedom of religion, speech, and press; the right to bear arms to be tried by a jury; the right to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances; prohibits cruel and unusual punishments and arbitrary government seizure of private property); adopted by the necessary number of states in 1791
Washington sent John Jay to London in 1794; fearful of war with Britain, he secretly supplied the British with details of America's bargaining strategy; British promised to evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and to pay damages for recent seizures of American ships; British forced Jay to make the U.S. pay the debts still owed to British merchants on pre-Revolutionary accounts; infuriated Jeffersonians and the French
in Pennsylvania in 1794; Hamilton high excise tax was regarded by pioneers as a burden on an economic necessity and a medium of exchange; when they began to rebel, Washington summoned an inter-state militia (thirteen thousand people); the rebels fled (only three were killed); it commanded a new respect for Washington's government and appalled some by the brute display of force
written by Madison as an amendement to the Constitution; reserves all rights not explicity delegated or prohibited by the federal Constitution "to the States respectively, or to the people"
laws that empowered the president to deport dangerous foreigners in time of peace and to deport or imprison them in time of hostilities; never enforced; used against Jeffersonian immigrants; used because of imminent war with France
written by Federalist government; provided that anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials, including the president, would be liable to a heavy fine and imprisonment; used againt outspoken Jeffersonians; seemed to be in direct conflict with the Consitution (freedom of speech and press); Federalists intentionally wrote the law to expire in 1801 so that it could not be used against them if they lost the next election
less extreme statement (than the Kentucky Resolution) written by James Madison and adopted by the legislature of Virginia in 1798; compact theory; written to nullify Alien and Sedition Acts; later used by southerners to support secession
a series of resolutions written by Jefferson and approved by the Kentucky legislature in 1798 and 1799; compact theory; written to nullify Alien and Sedition Acts; later used by southerners to support secession
led by Hamilton; believed in rule by the "best people", hostility to extension of democracy, powerful central government at the expense of states' rights, loose construction, government to foster business, concentration of wealth in interests of capitalistic enterprise, a protective tariff, pro-British, national debt a blessing if properly funded, and expanding bureaucracy, a powerful central bank, restrictions on free speech and press, a strong navy to protect shippers; they were primarily from the seacoast area and were often wealthy merchants, manufacturers, or shippers
instance in which Adams's envoys reached Paris in 1797, hoping to meet the French foreign minister Talleyrand; instead, the were secretly approached by three go-betweens (X, Y, and Z) who demanded an unneutral loan of 32 million florins and a bribe of $250,000 for the privilege of merely talking with Talleyrand; the Americans did not accept; led to war hysteria sweeping through the United States
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