DSHS Biology chapter 8.4-8.7 review
Terms in this set (8)
Define gene expression
A gene, segment of DNA that codes for a protein, is transcribed and translated
What happens during transcription?
RNA polymerase, an enzyme break hydrogen bonds of DNA causing it to open. RNA polymerase transcribes a segment of DNA strand, that produces single stranded mDNA.
What are the three types of RNA and what are their roles?
rRNA- RNA that makes ribosome
tRNA- Carries amino acids to ribosome
mRNA- Temporary copy of DNA that travels to ribosomes
Explain the process of translation
Translation begins when a tRNA molecule with the complementary anticodon binds to an mRNA "start" codon (methionine), and transfers RNA that will continue to bring amino acids until an mRNA "stop" codon is reached
What happens in a translocation mutation?
Two nonhomologous chromosomes exchange DNA segments
Homologous chromosomes should separate during meiosis to reduce chromosome numbers by half
Define a mutagen
Agents in the environment that can change DNA
What is the relationship between phenotype and genotype?
Phenotype is the physical expression of a gene. phenotype is determined by genotype
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