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ENV 102 Chapter 7.2-3 - The Rock Cycle, The Carbon Cycle, Oceans (Ch 12.7)
Terms in this set (28)
elements within Earth's crust and mantle are slowly converted from one type of rock to another
The processes that change rocks (5)
5. deposition of sediments
Three Categories of Rock
Igneous rock (four types)
Formed as magma solidifies. Characteristics depends on the chemical composition of the magma, how fast it cools.
~ Basalic (basic) - melted mantle (large amount of iron and magnesium)
~ Acidic - from continental crust that melted in subduction zones (rich in silicon and aluminum)
~ Extrusive - magma that flows or is ejected onto Earth's surface. Basalt, which forms from volcanic lava is an example. Basalt cools rapidly so it has very small crystals.
~ Intrusive - magma that solidifies beneath the Earth's surface cools very slowly so the crystals in the rock have time to grow large, giving intrusive igneous rocks a rough, granular texture. Example: granite.
Sedimentary rock (four examples)
Formed when sediments such as sand, silt, and the remains of dead organisms become "glued together" under pressure. Character often reflects the environment where they were deposited:
~ Limestone - cemented shells of marine organisms
~ Shale - fine grained deposits of silts and clays formed in low energy bays and estuaries
~ Sandstone - cemented coarse sands formed in high energy environments like beaches
~ Coal - organic deposits formed in swamps
Formed when great heat and pressure transform the physical and chemical properties of sedimentary or igneous rocks. As thick layers of sediment accumulate, their weight creates pressure on the sediment layers below, accelerating the process of rock formation.
Ex. marble formed from sedimentary limestone. Shale becomes slate.
The distribution and flux of water through Earth's biogeochemical system. It includes 3 phases of water: solid, liquid, and gaseous water vapor.
1. Precipitation transfers water vapor in the atmosphere to liquid water in the hydrosphere. (Gravity)
2. Once on the ground, liquid water has three general fates - it may evaporate back to the atmosphere, flow across Earth's surface into streams and lakes and eventually the ocean (gravity) or percolate through the soil to become groundwater.
Evaporation from leaves
Rainwater that falls on land and flows across the surface to eventually enter lakes and streams. 10% of the water that evaporates from the ocean returns to it via rivers each year
A layer of soil or rock that is saturated with groundwater. 0.1-5% of total rainfall reaches an aquifer. Groundwater moves through rock very slowly, eventually delivering the water to lakes, streams, or the ocean.
How does deforestation impact the hydrological cycle?
It reduces the amount of transpiration (evaporation of water from leaves) which reduces rainfall. It also alters runoff amounts and percolation to groundwater aquifers.
How much of Earth's surface do the oceans cover?
What are the surface currents driven by? Describe them.
Earth's rotation, winds, and differences in water temperature. The major gyres bring warm equatorial waters to the poles. Above the equator, the warm water travels north along the West Coasts (clockwise). Below the equator, the water travels south along East Coasts (counterclockwise).
It takes one water molecule about a year to complete a circuit in a surface gyre.
Some surface currents are much faster.
Circulation caused by differences in temperature and salinity
This circuit is very slow, it takes a water molecule hundreds of years to make a complete circuit. But this circulation moves a lot of heat and this
The ocean plays a huge role in long-term climate patterns and O2 vertical movement.
Exchanging surface water with water from the depths - thermohaline circulation
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